Coralville city

Table of Contents

1. Demographics: Total population; age distribution; gender distribution; family characteristics (single parent, multi-family, etc.). Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate.

Coralville city is the 2172 largest city in America. It is located in the state of Iowa and has a total population of 20,078 in comparison to Iowa’s population figure of 3,106,589. The population density of the city is 1595 per square meter which is 2819 percent higher than the average of Iowa and 1660% higher in comparison to the average of the country (US Census Bureau, 2019). The city’s median age as to the 2010 census was 31.6 years which is about fifteen percent less than the average age of Iowa which is 38. 22.3 percent of the population being below 18 years; the ages between 18 and 24 comprised of 11.6% of the population; with the ages 25 to 44 making 36.5% of the residents; the ages 45 to 64 make up 22.2 percent; and the ages above 65 make constitute of 7.5% (US Census Bureau, 2019).

The gender composition of Coralville is 48.5 percent female and 51.5 percent male. The male to female ration in the city is 1.1:1 whereas in Iowa it is 1.0:1 which is similar to the ration of male to female in the U.S (Santalla, 2013).In Coralville, there are 4,229 families whereby 29.4% of these comprise of children below 18 years old who still live with their parents, married couples who live together comprise of 42.8% of the families, whereas female householders with no present husband made up 8.5% of the families and 3.2% of the families have a male householder with no present wife (US Census Bureau, 2019). Of these families 45.5% were not families. The average size of a family in Coralville is 3.01.

2.Racial/Ethnic Characteristics: Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate.According to Tak and Ne (2016), the racial composition of Coralville is made up of Asians, African Americans, Whites, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans and other races. Each making up 7.8%, 7.9%, 79.4%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 2.0% respectively. The Latino or Hispanic make up 5.1% of the population.In comparison to Iowa State, 1.7 percent of the population are Asians, 2.9% are African Americans, 91.3% is made up of Whites, and 1.7% make up the Native Americans with the Latinos or Hispanic comprising of 4% and the remaining races making up 0.4% (Aud, 2010).As to Smedley (2018), in America the Latino and Hispanic Americans make up 17.8% of the people. The national’s total is made up of 61.3% of White, Non-Latino or Hispanic people, with the total population of white people which includes the White Latinos or Hispanic, comprising 76.9%.

The African American race constitutes 12.6 percent whereby the Native Americans make up 0.9%. The remaining races make up 9.1% of the population.

3. Economy: poverty rate, unemployment rates, median income. Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate.

The poverty rate of Coralville city is 2.17% which is meaningfully lower in comparison to the State’s poverty rate of 12.0% and that of America of 14.6%.The unemployment rate of the city stands at 1.9% lower than Iowa State which is 2.5% and the national unemployment rate is 3.9% (, 2017).For those employed, the median household income in Coralville is $60,000 annually which is relatively higher than that of the state which is $52,716 annually and the national’s as well $53,482 (, 2017).

4. Education: High school completion rates; higher education statistics. Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. The average high school completion rate in Coralville is 91.7% which is 0.7% higher than the state’s high school completion rate (Paulsen, 2018). The high school rate of graduation of Iowa of 91% is the highest in America, with America’s rate standing at 90%.There are six colleges within fifty miles of Coralville. In Iowa the overall rate of graduation from higher education is 150% of the normal time students complete their studies (Paulsen, 2018). Iowa’s public colleges have the highest rates of graduation in the country. In America, higher education is administered at 4360 Title IV degree offering institutions (Bowen, 2018).

5. Identify two Morbidity and Mortality/Risk Problems: (Based on your observations from Week 1 subjective assignment, windshield survey and key informants provide Morbidity, Mortality (M&M) and risk data for your community… Example 1: if you observed obesity in your community then present obesity rates and health conditions associated with obesity [i.e. CVD, HD, Depression, etc.).

Example 2: smoking/drinking rates and health conditions associated with smoking [i.e. Lung Cancer, COPD, etc]. These variables may include the following: gender (who does this problem affect the most, men or women); age distribution; ethnicity or racial group(s) mostly-affected; morbidity and mortality rates; any data related to life-expectancy in light of the health issues; is there a geographic area where the health problems mainly exist; is there a relationship between the health issue(s) and environmental health hazards; are these life-threatening health issues? Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate. The rates of heart attacks and strokes in the city of Coralville have decreased over the past few years in comparison to Iowa’s and the national rates. Nevertheless, the heart attack and stroke rates have been observed to be significantly higher in men between the ages of 43 to 60 (CDC, 2016). Furthermore, they are higher significantly among the racial/ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic white women. In diabetes mellitus type 1, both the younger and older population of Coralville and the racial/ethnic minorities have been identified as the high-risk groups. The prevalence data for childhood diabetes and heart attacks and strokes are lacking. In Iowa, diabetes has been listed as the most chronic childhood’s conditions and the rates of the youth and children as well as the adults, is rising. Particularly, the minority young groups are at a higher risk of developing diabetes.

There is lacking data on this nevertheless basing on the estimates of the rates of diagnosed childhood diabetes nationally, it is approximated that 2800 to 3600 Iowa youth and children have diabetes (CDC, 2011). Heart diseases is the leading cause of death in Iowa. In 2013 alone, 6917 people died due to heart disease which made it the leading death cause in Iowa (CDC, 2012). Coronary Heart Disease is majorly responsible for the deaths. In the US annually, 610000 people die due to hear disease this makes it to be 1 out of every four deaths. Heart disease is the main cause of both women and men’s death. As to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 100 million adults in America are living with pre-diabetes or diabetes (Writing Group Members, 2012). As of 2015, 9.4% of the population in US approximately 30.3 million have diabetes.6. Other data as needed (air, water quality, crimes rates). Remember compare objective data for your community with local (city), state, and national data. Remember to cite sources as appropriate.The Coralville quality of air is currently good which is at quality index of 42*. The city strives to achieve water quality at a low cost. The water quality of Coralville has remained contamination-free with little changes in its quality over the past decades (EPA, 2018).

In Coralville, the probability of an individual becoming a victim of a violent crime, like murder, rape, aggravated assault, or armed robbery is 1 in 444 (UCR, 2018). Additionally, a lot of the crime taking place in the city is property crime.In Iowa, the air quality ranges from 0 to 500 whereby the higher the value of AQI, the greater the air pollution level and the greater the concern of health (EPA, 2019). Unfortunately, the current quality of water of Iowa leaves much to be anticipated and there is a need for increased action to preserve and protect the water resources. Crime in Iowa is ranked on a scale of 1 to 100 with 1 standing for low crime and 100 for high crime (UCR, 2018). The violent crime in Iowa is 18.2 whereas for property crime is 32.3 (Reece, 2010).In America most cities experience high ozone pollution days, also referred to as short term particle pollution and smog. In 2014 and 2016, nearly 134 million people live in cities with unhealthy levels of pollution. The quality of water in America is generally good. Over 90% of the community systems of water in America are complying with more than 90 of the standards of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Griffiths et al., 2012). The crime rate of US in terms of violent crime is 386.3 as of 2016 and the total property crime rate as of 2016 was 2450.7 (Light & Harris, 2012).Analysis of Data 1. Based on your subjective and objective review of your findings, what conclusions have you arrived at? Remember to cite sources as appropriate.

• What impressions from your subjective observations were unfounded/invalid?

On politics, as much as there was no sign of the town’s affiliation to any political party, Coralville city has underground politics with itself and the city of Iowa. Although an incorporated city with approximately 20000 people, the city is a fringe of Iowa city. It is very conscious of its relations with the City of Iowa and its precarious existence as an entity that is independent (Shuster, 2014).The City Council of Coralville has committed its community to a growth and improvement program, to preclude the chance of Iowa City swallowing it.

There is an undercurrent of hostility, suspicion and jealousy which can be observed in the current battles of legal fought over unincorporated areas and adjacent land (Krier, Stockner & Lasley, 2011). Coralville desires land for future independence; whereas the City of Iowa desires the land for growth.

The intercommunity cooperation problems are therefore of great importance to Coralville. Every civic improvement and bond issue move Coralville away from the probability of merging with the City of Iowa, thus committing the residents to further heavier taxation (Krier, Stockner & Lasley, 2011). While the City Council’s decisions have been supported generally in the community, a large part of the population still resist the decision of the Council to push for an independent policy (Krier, Stockner & Lasley, 2011). The presence of the division in opinion is clear and each side is very vigorous in their efforts to defeat the other.• Given the objective data, what impressions were validated/substantiated?Given the objective data, the aspects of race and ethnicity were substantiated. Indeed a large percentage of Coralville populations is comprised of the White people. Most of the white people comprise of the Irish, Germans, and Norwegians (Tak & Ne, 2016). Furthermore, the health issues of the population of Coralville was validated as well. Despite decreasing, the heart attacks and strokes rates have been observed to be higher in men than women, with the rates being higher among most racial ethnic women (Mozaffarian et al., 2016). In addition, both the younger and older population of Coralville and the racial/ethnic minorities have been identified as the high-risk groups of diabetes mellitus type 1.

• What cause-and-effect relationships did you discover/identify?One of the causes and effect relationship identified in Coralville is their lifestyle risk behavior of residents being seen eating in Burger King, Popeyes and Wendy’s. This may be the main cause of the several cases of heart attacks and strokes in the city as well as the high rates of diabetes mellitus type 1 among the children and youth.Nevertheless, with some residents spotted exercising and other walking their dogs, this might be the reason behind the declining rates of heart attacks and strokes in the city in comparison to Iowa and the nation at large.

2. Problem Analysis for Community/Zip Code:Problem: List two (2) problems within your community (for example, Infant Malnutrition, CVD, Lung Cancer, Obesity, Alcoholism, Violence) NOTE: These problems need to be something the Community Health Nurse can impact (for example, a CHN cannot build a sidewalk, repair a street, implement a new bus route, etc.). Remember to cite sources as appropriate.1. _Obesity2. _Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Select one of these problems and complete the Problem Analysis chart Problem Correlates* Relationship of Correlate to Problem Data Supportive of Relationship +Ex. Inadequate diet Ex. Diets lacking in required nutrients contribute to malnutrition Ex. All infants and children seen at the local Public Health Clinic are referred to the nutritionist because of poor diets (X.Y. personal communication, date). Of infants measured, 60% were in the lower percent for their weight/height (X report, date).Overweight issues Someone being overweight result to increased risk to have diabetes mellitus type 1 Obesity is one of the factors in Iowa which has been closely related to Diabetes.

The obese adults in Iowa are 400 percent more likely to have diabetes compared to normal adults (Marcia & Lancaster, n.d.). Those who are overweight are 66 percent likely to have diabetes than those who have normal weight.Lack of adequate exercise Insufficient daily/regular physical activities increase the risk of diabetes Iowa adults who do not exercise have a 29 percent probability to have diabetes than adults who exercise at the levels recommended by nutrition doctors (Vannatta, 2016).High fat, high sugar and high sodium foods Poor nutrition which mainly consist of high fat, high sugar and sodium foods contribute to diabetes. The built environment which frequently makes sufficient regular promotion of high sodium, high sugar, high fats, high processed low-fiver and inexpensive foods largely contribute to the dramatic increase of diabetes.Personal lifestyle choices Poor lifestyle choices of the people lead to prevalence of diabetes The daily physical activity which at best is optional has resulted a 27% prevalence of hypertension, 66% prevalence of overweight/obesity (Vannatta, 2016).*These are factors that contribute to problem and outcomes. + Refer to appropriate sections of the database and relevant research of the findings in current literature. Data in the third column could be local, state, or national statistics.

3. Community Health Nursing Diagnoses: Based on your subjective and objective assessment findings above for both Weeks 1 and 2, write TWO priority community health nursing diagnoses. You must use this format for correctly writing a CH nursing diagnosis (do NOT use NANDA): *RISK OF AMONG RELATED TOHealth *Risk/problem of (specific injury, illness, or potential of, complication of, etc) Among (specific population) Related to (supporting evidence from your assessment findings).  Your CHN Diagnoses MUST be something that a community/public health nurse can do something about. See example below.  Note: Poverty is NOT a CHN diagnosis. Remember do NOT use NANDA Nursing Diagnoses.For example: Risk of asthma complications among children in SE Dallas County related to observations of overcrowded living conditions, lack of public transportation (may result in inability to access health care), high number of animals observed living in homes, poverty indications (may result in lack of access to medications).Community Health Nursing Diagnosis #1The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 among the children and youth in Coralville City s in relation to poor nutrition which is as a result of a built environment which frequently makes readily available and sufficient regular promotion of high sodium, high sugar, high fats, high processed low-fiver and inexpensive foods largely contribute to the dramatic increase of diabetes (CDC, n.d.).Community Health Nursing Diagnosis #2Obesity is one of the factors in Coralville City which has been closely related to Diabetes. The obese adults in Coralville have a poor physical activity lifestyle among the obese and the overweight which has 400 percent and 66 percent chance respectively to result to diabetes compared to normal adults (CDC, n.d.). Furthermore, the daily physical activity has been kept optional which has caused a prevalence of hypertension and obesity.