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CHROMOTHERAPYColour Therapy is a complementary therapy in Naturopathy for which there is evidence dating back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of Egypt, China and India. Colour is simply light of varying wavelengths, thus each colour has its own particular wavelength and energy.The energy relating to each of the seven spectrum colours of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, resonates with the energy of each of the seven main chakras/energy centres of the body. If you can imagine the chakras as a set of cogs/wheels, they are rather like the workings of a clock or an engine; each cog/wheel needs to move smoothly for the clock/engine to work properly. Thus good health and wellbeing is achieved by a balance of all these energies.  Balance of the energy in each of the body’s chakras is very important for health and wellbeing. Colour therapy can help to re-balance and/or stimulate these energies by applying the appropriate colour to the body and therefore re-balance our chakras.Colour therapy is safe to use alone or alongside any other therapy whether orthodox medicine or another complementary therapy and is safe and helpful for adults, children and animals too.Colours and related ChakrasColour   ChakraViolet CrownIndigo BrowBlue ThroatGreen HeartYellow Solar PlexusOrange SacralRed Base                                                      REFERENCES:Azeemi ST, Raza SM. A critical analysis of chromotherapy and its scientific evolution. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005;2(4):481-8.Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf and S MohsinRaza. “A critical analysis of chromotherapy and its scientific evolution” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine :eCAM vol. 2,4 (2005): 481-8.Azeemi, S. T., &Raza, S. M. (2005).A critical analysis of chromotherapy and its scientific evolution.Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine :eCAM, 2(4), 481-8. MAGNETO THERAPYMagnet therapy, or magnetic therapy is an alternative medicine practice involving the use of weak static magnetic fields, a form of electromagnetic radiation, produced by permanent magnets.Different effects are assigned to different orientations of the magnet. Magnet therapy has been used by different cultures for healing for a very long time. Cleopatra may have been the first historical figure to use magnet therapy as she was known to sleep on lodestone or magnetite to keep her skin youthful. This could also be the same reason why ancient rulers wore metallic headbands and bracelets. Even Aristotle and Plato were said to mention the benefits of lodestone in their works. As a means for healing, magnets are widely used in countries like China, India and France. Magnet therapy was introduced to the United States in the early 1900s and is now fast gaining wide acceptance. Magnetic products like jewellery, shoe inserts, mattress pads, belts, caps, goggles, magnetic water stand and other things with magnetic properties are extensively available.There is a natural electromagnetic field surrounding the earth and it largely affects our state of health and general well-being. The magnetic energy field is the area around a magnet in which magnetic forces act.The cells making up the human body are capable of renewing themselves. Therapeutically, magnets can be used to manipulate these cells. The same natural energy responsible for cell renewal can be amplified by magnetic force. Not all magnetic energy is beneficial and can be used for healing. It is common knowledge that cell phones and computers emit harmful magnetic energy that cause memory loss, headaches, and in rare occasions, even tumours. On the other hand, beneficial magnetic force can be harnessed to increase blood flow. A good training is necessary to know the many applications of magnet on the human body.     REFERENCE:Zyss T, Magnetotherapy, NeuroEndocrinolLett. 2008 Nov;29Suppl 1:161-201. Review.PMID:19029874 PHYSIOTHERAPYPhysiotherapy is a dynamic profession which uses various treatment techniques to restore mobility and maximizing potential. It is also a branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises and modern equipments to help patients regain or to improve the physical abilities.Eminent physicians like Hippocrates, founder of modern medicine and Gallen are believed to be the first practitioners of physiotherapy, manual therapy and cold therapy to treat people in 460 B.C. In 1864, Gustav Zander, a Swedish doctor invented an exercise machine to help the patient in performing exercises. Physical therapy originated from massage manipulation by nurses at the end of 19th century. In 1894, four nurses at Great Britain formed a Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.Physical therapy specially begins with physical assessment of patient condition. This typically includes a reveal of patient medical history and examination. The assessment stage may involve diagnostic test to better evaluate the patient condition and develop effective treatment plan. Once assessment is complete then physician looks out at the results to determine the progress. Treatment is guided with clinical assessment based on unique needs of the patients. Physical therapy may employ various physiotherapeutic treatment options which include neuro-muscular, skeletal conditions, cardio pulmonary efficiencies, pain management and certain integumentary techniques like radiation, heat, cold, exercise, current waves (Ultrasound therapy, TENS, muscle stimulation, iontophoresis therapy, galvanism and IFT).There are 3 main fields of practice which the discipline of physiotherapy includes: Musculo-skeletal physiotherapy – accelerates healing of soft tissue injuries.Neuro physiotherapy – accelerates to retain to movement and function after stroke, traumatic brain injury or other nerve injuries. Cardio-respiratory physiotherapy – seeksto improve breathing and prevent lung infection.Evidentially based on high quality of RCTs, strong evidence was found in favor of task oriented exercise training to restore balance and gait for the strengthening of the lower paretic limb. Strong evidence was also found for therapies that were focused on training of upper limb such as constraint induced movement therapy, treadmill trained with or without support, aerobic, external auditory rhythm, during gait. A positive effect of electrical stimulation is triggered by voluntary movement faster than non-triggered electrical waves. Triggered electrical stimulation may be more effective than non-triggered electrical waves in facilitating upper extremities, motor recovery following stroke1. A long-term study of TENS, may be effective in reducing prolonged soleus H and stretch reflex latencies in hemiparetic spasticity.3REFERENCES:1. R PS Van Peppen, GertKwakkel, Sharon wood- Dauphine H JM Hendricks Ph. The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: What’s the evidence? Clinical rehabilitation 18(8), 833-862, 2004.2. Mindy F Levin, Christina WY Hui-chan. Relief of Hemi paretic spasticity by TENS is associated with improvement in reflex and voluntary motor functions. Electroencephalography and clinical Neuro-physiology.EVPS 85(2), 131-142, 1992.YOGA THERAPYYoga is an ancient discipline designed to bring balance and health to the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions of the individual. It is long popular practice in India that has become increasingly more common in Western society. “Yoga” means union of our individual consciousness with the Universal Divine Consciousness in a super-conscious state known as Samadhi1, 2.Yoga (asthanga) is often depicted metaphorically as a tree and comprises eight aspects, or “limbs” [Patanjali codified the ancient marvel of yoga as asthanga which is one of the six schools of Indian philosophy and is known as Yoga Darshan2]: yama (universal ethics), niyama (individual ethics), asana(physical postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (control of the senses), dharana(concentration), dyana (meditation), and samadhi (bliss)3.Elementary courses of hatha yoga focus on physical exercises consisting of various postures and breathing techniques. A growing body of research evidence supports the belief that certain yoga techniques may improve physical and mental health through down-regulation of the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The holistic science of yoga is the best method for prevention as well as management of stress and stress-induced disorders.  Brief yoga-based relaxation training normalizes the function of the autonomic nervous system by deviating both sympathetic and parasympathetic indices toward more “normal” middle region of the reference values4, 5. Studies show that yoga decreases levels of salivary cortisol,6, 7blood glucose,8, 9 as well as plasma rennin levels, and 24-h urine nor-epinephrine and epinephrine levels10. Yoga significantly decreases heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. it has been hypothesized that some yoga exercises cause a shift toward parasympathetic nervous system dominance, possibly via direct vagal stimulation11. Yoga has been shown to have immediate psychological effects: decreasing anxiety6, 7, 12, 13 and increasing feelings of emotional, social, and spiritual well-being14. Several literature reviews have been conducted that examined the impact of yoga on specific health conditions including cardiovascular disease15 metabolic syndrome11, diabetes16, cancer17, and anxiety4.  REFERENCES:Vivekananda S. Raja Yoga (34th Impression) AdvaitaAsrama. 2007.Madanmohan Role of Yoga and Ayurveda in Cardiovascular Disease.Iyengar BKS. Light on Yoga. 2nd ed. New York: Schocken Books; 1976.Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Tuffrey V, Richardson J, Pilkington K, Ramaratnam S. Yoga for anxiety: A systematic review of the research evidence. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:884–91.Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Richardson J. Yoga for Depression: The Research Evidence. J Affect Disord. 2005;89:13–24.Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, Langhorst J, Ludtke R, Esch T, et al. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three month intensive yoga program. Med SciMonit. 2005;11:555–61.West J, Otte C, Geher K, Johnson J, Mohr DC. Effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Ann Behav Med. 2004;28:114–8.Khatri D, Mathur KC, Gahlot S, Jain S, Agarwal RP. Effects of yoga and meditation on clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2007;78:e9–10.Gokal R, Shillito L. Positive impact of yoga and pranayam on obesity, hypertension, blood sugar, and cholesterol: A pilot assessment. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13:1056–7. Selvamurthy W, Sridharan K, Ray US, Tiwary RS, Hedge KS, Radhakrishnan U, et al. A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian J PhysiolPharmacol. 1998;42:205–13. Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: A systematic review. J Am Board FamPract. 2005;18:491–519.Gupta N, Shveta K, Vempati R, Sharma R, Vijlani RL. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trail anxiety. Indian J PhysiolPharmacol. 2006;50:41–7.Telles S, Naveen K, Dash M, Deginal R, Manjunath NK. Effect of yoga on self-rated visual discomfort in computer users. Head Face Med. 2006;2:46.Moadel AB, Shaw C, Wylie-Rossett J, Harris MS, Patel SR, Hall CB, et al. Randomized controlled trial of yoga among a multiethnic sample of breast cancer patients: Effects on quality of life. J ClinOncol. 2007;25:1–9.Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of hatha yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: A literature review. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:797–812.Upadhyay AK, Balkrishna A, Upadhyay RT. Effect of pranayama (voluntary regulated yoga breathing) and yogasana (yoga postures) in diabetes mellitus (DM): A scientific review. J ComplIntegr Med. 2008;5:3.Bower JE, Woolery A, Sternlieb B, Garet D. Yoga for cancer patients and survivors. Cancer Control. 2005;12:165–71.