5.1 Recapitulation of the StudyIn the present study this chapter represent the outcome of analyses of the relationship between workplace bullying, workplace deviance, organizational cynicism and emotional exhaustion.In the last few years the nature of workplace in hospitals has been suffered due to the behavior of nursing staff. Due to last few years the environment of the hospitals are change in which nursing attitude or behavior are altered prove in this study.in the present study the founders struggle to investigate past studies (Brown, Trevino and Harrison, 2005; Davis and Rothstein, 2006; Neubert et al., 2009; Parry and Proctor-Thomson, 2002; Stock and McDermott, 2008; White and Lean, 2008; Walumbwa et al., 2008; Wong and Cummings, 2009) that’s explain in western countries can be generalized in some other countries or may be different due to contextual change.The present study is conducted to explore an emerging issue of organizational cynicism among the nursing staff of Gujranwala, Pakistan .to achieve the objectives of this study the researcher integrated a model to investigate the problem of organizational cynicism in nursing staff. Bennett and Robinsons (2000) workplace deviance questionnaire, measures the voluntary behavior that violate the organization norms and threaten the wellbeing of organization. Rogers and Kelloway’s (1997) workplace bullying scale that measure the all repeated actions and practices that are directed to one or more workers done deliberately cause humiliation to members. Dean et al. (1998) organizational cynicism measures a negative attitude of employees towards employees and organization. Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) emotional exhaustion scale measure the feeling of tiredness and being emotionally overextended by interactions with other people.The objective of this study is to examine the relationship of workplace bullying and workplace deviance. Organizational cynicism is found mostly in nursing sector in the current era so the main purpose of this study is to examine the mediating impact of organizational cynicism between the relationship of workplace bullying and workplace deviance. Nurses show negligence and rude attitude during its duty which causes cynicism. the change in environment are also a cause of cynicism. Result of negative behavior toward an employing organization describe as negative opinion, feeling and attitude, is an individual reaction to the organization its state by James (2005).The attitude and behavior of administrator and coworkers create inequality among nursing which cause negative attitude of nursing toward organization for an authentic and peaceful environment, administrator treat all employee equally and provide information correct and fair to all its employees in hospital. as a result of that treatment nursing become loyal and done their job properly. Psychological attachment reduces the physically distance among employees and play affective role doing its duty without pressure (O & R 1994).If there is workplace bullying and workplace deviance then the working environment of the hospital is not properly work and nursing not performing its duty in better way. Organizational cynicisms increase the impact of workplace bullying and workplace deviance. Organizational cynicism fully mediates the relationship of workplace bullying and workplace deviance. organizational cynicism proves the full mediation that support our study.This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and workplace deviance. Workplace bullying and workplace deviance have positive relationship and the result indicate that they have significant positive relationship which support our hypothesis. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and organizational cynicism. Workplace bullying and organizational cynicism have positive relationship and the result indicates that they have significant positive relationship which supports our hypothesis. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion. Workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion have negative relationship and the result indicates that they have significant negative relationship which supports our hypothesis. Workplace deviance and emotional exhaustion negative insignificance effect of emotional exhaustion on workplace deviance that does not support our study. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and workplace deviance. organizational cynicism and workplace deviance have positive relationship and the result indicates that they have significant positive relationship which supports our hypothesis. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between emotional exhaustion and workplace deviance. emotional exhaustion and workplace deviance have negative relationship and the result indicates that they have insignificant negative relationship which supports our hypothesis. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and workplace deviance with the mediating effect of organizational cynicism and result indicate that they have significant positive relationship and there is mediation which support our study. This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and workplace deviance with the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion and result indicate that they have insignificant negative relationship and there is no mediation which not support our studyThe researcher found the latest theoretical and methodological gaps and expanded the previous models of workplace bullying and workplace deviance by investing the dimension of burnout of organizational cynicism. To examine the relationships among such constructs researcher used a quantitative approach and questionnaires were used to collect data from employees of nursing sector. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 228 questionnaires were received at the actual response rate of 57%. The response rate was unexpectedly high. A possible reason might be that the researcher pointed out a real issue that needs to be investigated, but unfortunately ignored in nursing sector of Pakistan. Results of confirmatory factor analysis were used to support the hypothesis designed based on correlation results.Some results of the current study are consistent with the previous studies. The researcher confirmed each construct by using confirmatory factor analysis through AMOS 21. Moreover, the researcher compared each model by using chi-square difference test and results suggested that the single factor model is the best fit. However, the results from previous studies suggested that workplace bullying and workplace deviance have positive relationship. but in present studies some of these relationships found insignificant. A possible explanation of this insignificant relationship may be the contextual, cultural and demographic change among the respondents. Furthermore, the researcher attempted to investigate a mediating effect of organizational cynicism between workplace bullying and workplace deviance. In the current study there is full mediation prove of organizational cynicism between the relationship of workplace bullying and workplace deviance.5.2 Managerial ImplicationThe findings of the present study have several implications for the human resource directors and head nursing staff. First, the results found strong positive correlation among workplace bullying, organizational cynicism and workplace deviance. It is evident that by increasing workplace bullying in hospitals, nursing directors can significantly increase negative attitude and workplace deviance among nurses. For instance, due to repeated action against employees which cause more cynicism in hospitals. As well the management of hospital can retain their skilled nurses for a longer period of time. Second, the results revealed a significant relationship between workplace bullying and organizational cynicism. Although the findings are in favor of hospital management, the current situation is alarming for the nursing managers because it might be possible that nurses do not report violent incidents to the hospital management to avoid its associated complications. Therefore, the hospital management should strengthen its incident reporting mechanism and should strictly implement zero tolerance rules in hospital so that every nurse can report bullying behavior without any fear. Moreover, the findings of the current study show a significant relationship between workplace bullying and workplace deviance. if management wants to reduce the cynicism behavior the management should built some strategies to overcome the problem and give freedom employees to speak of inequality.Third, the current study found a significant negative relationship between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion. in present study organizational cynicism fully mediate the relationship of workplace bullying and workplace deviance. Organizational cynicism positively and significantly correlates the relationship between workplace bullying and workplace deviance. To reduce the impact of organizational cynicism the managers should pay special attention to the duty of nursing. managers should build polices to check and balance of the nursing staff. It is the responsibility of the directors of human resource management to develop strategies among nursing staff by adding some basic subjects of management disciplines (principal of management, leadership and human resource development) in the course outline of four-year nursing programs and conducting training sessions so that nurses can participate and play their role directly in decision making to reduce the negative attitude and organizational cynicism.5.3 Limitations of the StudyThe researcher attempted to cover the wide range of factors that influence the phenomena of organizational cynicism in nursing staff. while discuss the result this study has some limitation that should be focused. We use limited sample size of nurses of hospitals due to shortage of time and resources. for in deeply analyses large sample size can be considered. New generation involve in this field which always wants to find new and better opportunity for them. this research is conducted in Gujranwala city of Pakistan which country is under develop country where people are uneducated and has no resources for better research. Other limitation of current study is that it is conducted only one city of Punjab province not conducted in whole province. Research ethics art study applies in this research in data collection but it might be possible that biasness is there because of security issues. This study not involve the predictor and criteria variable whether last study recommended to use that some variable. 5.4 Future Directions of the Study In the present study only two dimensions of burnout are used. professional inefficacy is not used as mediating variable so I suggest further study to use s mediating variable. our study is focused only individual factor future research should use organization as target population. the primary outcome variable in the present study was workplace deviance. Similarly, according toEinarsen’s(2000) theoretical frame work for workplace bullying, workplace bullying impacts not only the target’s individual behavior but also the organization. this study is conducted only one city of Pakistan for future research that it can be done other cities and provinces of Pakistan so easily make compare of population of different provinces of Pakistan.When data was collecting, we observed the respondents how they behave, their expressions whether verbal and nonverbal, their way of communication, all are representing that they are aggressive, sad, irritate and having lack of trust. that all are shown that they all are in tension which are not satisfied their jobs.
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