51 Traits ApproachThe trait approach focuses on the individual and disregards the

5.1 Traits ApproachThe trait approach focuses on the individual and disregards the particular situation, actions and outcomes. Raters which are the managers, will test the relatively stable traits, if they choose to adopt the trait approach. These may include skills such as intellectual capabilities that are not easily trainable and personality styles that will not likely change over time (Aguinis Herman, 2013). In the registered nurse job description, it is fitting to use the appropriate trait assessment tools that are able to assess the nurse’s stable traits. The traits and skills that can be evaluated for registered nurses could include knowledge, skills, abilities, interests, work styles, and work values. However, according to (Aguinis Herman, 2013) there are a few disadvantages when the evaluation of performance is based only on the measurement of traits.Firstly, the individuals are not able to control any of the improvement in their traits, such as their abilities and interests that they possess. Additionally, performance is based on the results of the employee’s actions and how they achieved those results. It is not based on what the employee is able to do or is interested in doing hence, although the employee has the required traits, it will not guarantee a good performance from the employee. Due to this, it is unreasonable to measure the performance of registered nurses based on traits. 5.2 Behavioral ApproachThe behavioral approach discusses what workers do at work and does not take into account the personalities of employees or the outcomes of their actions. This is essentially a process-oriented approach that focuses on how the job is done by an employee (Aguinis Herman, 2013). In general, if some particular conditions are met, the behavioral approach may be used to measure performance (Aguinis Herman, 2013). Those conditions are: 1. The link between behaviors and results is not obvious2. Desired outcomes will occur in the near future3. Poor results are because of reasons beyond the control of the performerSince performance is measured based on what an employee does (behavior), the initial response may be that using this approach is always appropriate. In the job description for registered nurses, the Tasks and Work Activities describes the behaviors that are required from the employees. In this case, several of the behaviors listed meets the conditions for using the behavior approach especially in regard to condition 1 and 3. For example, the correlation between a nurse’s behavior and the health of a patient is unclear and indirect, unless there is direct evidence that the nurse neglecting their duties and is violating standards. However, even if there is neglect, the patient will still recover. Hence, the behavior approach is unsuitable to be used for measuring the performance of registered nurses.5.3 Results ApproachThe results approach does not take into account how the employees perform the job or the skills and traits that employees may have. Instead, it stresses on the results that are produced by the employees. Additionally, since this approach only focuses on the results, the cost of tracking results is less costly than tracking behaviors. Generally, the data collected from this approach tend to be objective (Aguinis Herman, 2013). According to (Aguinis Herman, 2013) the results approach is most suitable to be used in regard to the circumstances below:1. Workers are trained and skilled in the required behaviors2. The relation between behaviors and results can be clearly linked3. The results show constant improvement over a period time4. There are multiple methods of doing the job correctlyThrough the job description for registered nurses, it can be expected that registered nurses should be skilled performers and have adequate knowledge about being a nurse. There are a few ways the results approach may be used to assess the performance of a registered nurse. The job description has described the many different ways nurses can perform the job correctly. However, as noted earlier in the behavior approach, the behaviors of nurses and the results may not always be related, but, overall, it is widely believed patients will only benefit from the nurses’ care if they execute their jobs correctly. This job description of registered nurses fulfills the conditions of results approach hence, this approach seems suitable to be used as the performance measurement of registered nurses.In conclusion, from the discussion above, a performance measurement system that measures performance based on the results produced by the nurses for the position of registered nurse is recommended for St. Jessica’s Urban Medical Center Emergency Room since the job description fulfilled the conditions for results approach to be the most suitable. Some of the tasks that can be measured by the Centre using the results approach, for example is the accuracy and detail of documentation in patient records, updating and using relevant knowledge and the frequency of decision making.

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