A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function or parts of all of of an organisms and that is not due to anwy external injury (white et al. 2014.). a disease may be caused by external force such as pathogens or by internal dysfunction. Preventable infectious diseases like malaria and HIV/AIDS account for millions of deaths globally especially in middle and low income countries including Nigeria. Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi . infectious diseases can be spread directly or indirectly from one person to another . (CDC 2018).According to A Auta’s 2013 study on the occurrence and treatment of common health problems in Nigerian community, in Africa, communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality’. Communicable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections and pregnancy and childbirth complications account for 72% of all deaths. Nigeria is not an exception to this with high burden of infectious diseases and maternal mortality ratio of 554.5 per 100 live births.(A. Auta et al 2013).Non Communicable disease are the number one world’s killer causing 60% of all deaths globally (HCC.NCD Alliance 2011) and a staggering 35 million people die every year. In 2008, this figure rose to 36.1million (i.e. about 63% of global deaths) and nearly 80% of those equivalent of 29 million people occurred in low and middle-income countries with the projection of about 52 million deaths annually by 2030. (WHO 2011). In Nigeria, the impact of Non communicable diseases is enormous and glaring. At present, about eight million Nigerians suffer from hypertension and four million has diabetes; 100.000 new cases of cancers are diagnosed each year in Nigeria.(Chukwu 2011) DISEASE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT INTERVENTIONSThere have been increase global advocacy and policy efforts to prioritize diseases and non communicable diseases. The United Nations political declaration on prevention and control of Non communicable diseases (resolution A/RES/66/2) was followed by the 66th World health Assembly endorsement of the WHO global action plan for the prevention and control of non communicable diseases 2013-2020.(Resolution WHA 66.10).According to Thomas. A.G on his study: scaling up chronic disease prevention intervention in lower and middle income countries reported that public health strategies use mass education or policy interventions directed at the entire population to reduce the overall level of risk factors. Screening strategies combine both public health and individual interventions. These entails risk assessment and targeting those at risk because of one or more multiple risk factors for either lifestyle or medical intervention before developing advanced stages of NCDs. Both of these strategies have been important in reducing cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and diabetes mellitus-related deaths. A third strategy target those with acute or established NCDs to avert acute mortality, cure the disease or reduce recurrences of potentially fatal episodic events. (Thomas A Gaziano and Nela pagidipati 2013).President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)The CDC Nigeria office provides technical assistance to help ministry of health (MOH) implement an effective, efficient national HIV programme. This support has contributed to saving the lives of men, women and children through HIV treatment services and robust combination prevention strategy. Using a data-driven approach, this strategy is tailored to the unique characteristics of the local epidemic help for maximum health impact. Working closely with MOH, CDC supports the scale-up of high quality HIV prevention interventions including HIV treatment and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services. Other key activities include improving and expanding HIV/counselling and testing and TB/HIV integrated service delivery. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI)The main goal of PMI in Nigeria is to achieve 85% coverage of the most vulnerable groups – children under five years of age and pregnant women – with proven preventive and therapeutic interventions including long lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs), intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). The Action to Control HIV Epidemic through Evidence (ACHIEVE)This is a CDC Nigeria funded project of the institute of Human virology Nigeria (IHVN) under the PEPFAR # programme. EHAI currently is a sub-recipient of IHVN implementing the ACHIEVE project in 3 local government Areas (LGA) of Nasarawa State and Kwali LGA of the FCT. Under the ACHIEVE project, EHAI provides technical and programmatic support to pre-identified health facilities within these LGAs to ensure they provide HIV services og the highest quality to their clients. The project is offering HIV prevention, care and treatment services to Adults and paediatrics clients, pregnant women (PMTCT), key population and vulnerable children. Sustain patients on ART and support a minimal incease through passive enrolment on ART.Knowledge of disease prevention.According to a study on knowledge and application of infectious disease control measures among primary health care workers in Nigeria: the lassa fever Example. Nurses and midwives(80.3%) had slightly higher knowledge than CHEW (75.9%) and CHOs (71.4%) while CHOs had poor knowledge (28.6%) than the others. More respondents in private hospital (90%) had good knowledge about lassa fever control than their colleagues in PHC (73.7%) while more respondents in the PHCs had poor knowledge (11.1%) than their counterparts in private hospitals (3.3%). (Aigbiremilom A.O et al. 2012).In 2014, Biliqisu conducted a research on comparing the knowledge, attitude and practices of health care workers in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos state on Ebola Virus Disease. He reported that the proportion of respondents with good knowledge and practices among public health care workers was 98.5% and 93.5% among private health care workers. (Biliqisu I et al 2014).In 2015, Adebimpe published a research on knowledge and preventives practices against lassa fever among primary health care workers in Osogbo, he reported that only 56% of respondents had good knowledge of prevention and control of lassa fever ( Adebimpe W.O et al 2015)In 2017, Adebola E.O in his study: primary health care workers and knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice in Ibadan, Nigeria reported that primary health workers had poor knowledge and engaged in wrong practices about neonatal jaundice. He found out that over three quarters (80%) of respondents had poor knowledge about neonatal jaundice with only 53.6% engaged in right practices. (Adebola E.O et al 2017).In 2013, Tobin found out there is urgent need to increase the knowledge among healthcare personnel regarding lassa fever in his study assessment of knowledge and attitude towards lassa fever among primary care providers in endemic sub-urban community in Edo State: implication for control . he reported that the overall knowledge of lassa fever was poor (38.9%) and fair (41.2%) and good (19.8%).According to Agantem E.E. in his research conducted on knowledge, attitude and tuberculosis infection control practices among health care workers in DOTS centres in Lagos, Nigeria. found out that there are significant gaps in knowledge on tuberculosis infection control among health care workers in centres providing DOTS services in Lagos and this may increase the risk of transmission of Tuberculosis to them and to other patients within the health care facilities.Attitude towards disease preventionAccording to a study conducted on comparing the knowledge, attitude and practices of health care workers in public and private primeary care facilities in Lagos state on Ebola virus disease: proportion of respondents with positive attitude was 67% among public primary care and 72.7% in private care, (Biliqisu J.I 2014)In 2018, a study on knowledge, attitude and practice of primary health care workers regarding tuberculosis disease in Minna municipal council area, Niger State, Nigeria, revealed that the overall positive attitude of the respondents regarding tuberculosis tuberculosis was 43.7%. (cindo Bisalah et al 2018.)Practices of diseases preventionIn 2018, Cindo I.B. found out in his study conducted on knowledge, attitude and practice of primary health care workers regarding tuberculosis disease in Minna municipal council area, Niger State, Nigeria. That 50% of primary health care workers have satisfactory knowledge regarding tuberculosis and overall good practices of 51.6%. He however concluded that there are significant gap in knowledge and practices on tuberculosis prevention and control among primary health care workers in centres providing DOTS services in Minna municipal area council, Niger State. The knowledge gap could hinder early identification of tuberculosis patients and affects timely diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases with its attendants consequence. (cindo et al 2018).According to Salaah R.A on his study: knowledge, attitude and behaviour of primary health care workers regarding health care associated infections in Kuwait revealed the urgency to implement initiatives for improving health car policies regarding hospital associated infections when he found out there is good knowledge and attitude but poor practice characteristics among health care workers In primary health care. (Salah R,A. et al 2012).
Table of Contents