A low-fat diet is a diet that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol of a person is allowing to consume throughout the day. Reducing total fat intake leads to reductions in caloric intake, resulting in weight loss or less weight gain. An adult should get not more than 35% of their daily calories derived from fat to help in control saturated fat intake. We must eat a variety of low-fat foods to get sufficient nutrients. For examples, eat plenty of plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Then a moderate amount of fish, meats, and poultry as white fish, light tuna and chicken breast which without skin to control the fat, cholesterol, carbs and calories. To get low-fat sources of protein consist of legumes and low-fat dairy products such as black beans, soybeans, low-fat yogurt, and fat-free cream cheese. Furthermore, we can prepare a low-fat meal in our daily life. Firstly, remove all visible fat and skin from meat, fish, and poultry before cooking. Then, cook without added any butter, margarine, gravy or sauce. Instead of frying meat, prepare it by baking, broiling, steaming or poaching to reduce the use of oils. We can refrigerate soups or stews and remove the hardened fat on the top of the soups after it becomes solid before eating. A low-fat diet is beneficial to a cardiac patient to prevent their conditions become more complicated and as a prevention of heart disease for a normal person. In addition, it can increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol due to a reduction in saturated fat intake. In a nutshell, low-fat diet can prevent obesity and heart problems because low-fat products used to reduce weight, fat and cholesterol levels in the body. A diabetic diet is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to achieve and maintain good control over the disease. The content in meal plan should be including all types of vegetables, which is starchy and non-starchy vegetables, fruits, grains, lean protein, low-fat dairy, food with heart-healthy fats which is tuna, salmon, avocado and olive oil. Diet should avoid saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium.Specific diet for diabetic including Pritikin Diet, G.I Diet, low-carb diet and high fiber diet. Pritikin Diet consists of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, high in carbohydrates and roughage and is accompanied by exercise. Secondly, the GI Diet which is lowering the glycemic index of one’s diet to improve the control of diabetes. Other than that, low-carb diet is the removal of carbohydrates and replace with heart-healthy fats food such as nuts, olives in the diet to help in reverse diabetes. Fat would become the primary calorie source to minimized insulin resistance. Besides that, high fiber diet which contains a lot of fiber, to help keep your digestive system healthy. It can control blood sugar levels with the same efficacy as oral diabetes drugs.The benefit of specific diabetic diet helps to achieve blood sugar control, to reduce the amount of insulin that is needed. Besides that, it also helps in metabolic rate to avoid getting hyperglycemic, blood sugar level too low or hypoglycemic, blood sugar level too high. Diabetic diet also aids to lower cancer risk.A diabetes diet is a healthy-eating plan that’s naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. A diabetes diet is the best eating plan for most everyone.Fiber is a complex carbohydrate found in the cell walls of all plant-based foods. It promotes healthier eating patterns in our life. High fiber foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. These foods can take a longer time to chew than other foods and will help keep us full longer. First and foremost, soluble fiber can dissolve in water to form a gel-like material. It can help to lower our body cholesterol and glucose levels which may lower the risk of heart disease. It can found in oats or beans. Moreover, an insoluble fiber that promotes the movement in the digestive system and increase stool bulk benefits for constipation. It can found in vegetables, whole-wheat. Prebiotic fiber can help in our immunity to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It can found in onions, garlic.However, we can prepare our high fiber diet in our daily life. We need to eat more vegetables and fruit. Although that, we can eat whole grain meals. It consumed fiber nutrition such as whole-wheat pasta or brown rice. We also can find some fiber snacks that are healthy and high fiber. It can keep us feel full longer such as low-fat popcorn. Furthermore, we also can choose high-fiber breakfast cereal to start our days such as oatmeal or quinoa.High fiber diet can give many benefits to the patient in their daily life. It can help to normalize bowel movement of the patient and decrease the chance of constipation and solidify our stool. Moreover, aids in achieving a healthy weight. It can eat less and stay satisfied longer time. It also can lower cholesterol level by slow down to absorb sugar and help improve blood sugar levels. Low residue diet is a low fiber diet that is designed to reduce the amount of stool in the large intestine. The residue is the leftover or undigested food that passes through the colon to form stool, such as fibers and seeds.Low residue diet is under the prescription of a doctor in the aim of therapeutic purpose. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease syndrome (IBS) such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and diverticulitis will normally prescribe a low residue diet. Besides that, before and after bowel surgery or colonoscopy, one has to follow the special meal plan for a period of time. If a patient is suspected or diagnosed with the existence of a tumor in the large intestine, the doctor will also consider ordering a low residue diet to him.Low residue diet came with the excretory of stool from the body. The purpose of eating such a therapeutic meal plan is to temporary rest the bowel. Movement of bowel can be reduced and effectively relieve the disease symptoms. For example, abdominal pain and cramp, bloating, gas formation in the stomach etc. Moreover, the amount and consistency of the stool can be reduced.Examples of low residue food are refined carbohydrate: white rice, white bread, and pasta; protein: eggs, fish, soya, cheese; fruits and vegetables without skin and seeds; fat: vegetable oil, salad dressing, margarine. There is a lot of food which should be avoided, such as green and leafy vegetables, nuts, oatmeal, milk as these foods are contraindicated to the patients.As a conclusion, a low residue diet is a designated meal plan to decrease the intake of fiber to reduce the peristalsis of the large intestine in forming stool.Gastric or bland diet includes foods that are light and easy to digest. Besides, it also made up of foods which are soft, non-spicy and low in fiber. This type of diet is designed for the patient who suffers from gastrointestinal distress. It also helps to relieve heartburn, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Usually, gastric or bland diet contains less fiber, high pH value and soft texture of the food than other diets. Therefore, there is some food we should not take to prevent worsening inflammation of the lining of the stomach. For instance, all types of alcoholic drinks, caffeinated beverages such as coffee, carbonated drinks, deep-fried food and also avoid eating spicy food.The benefit of taking this diet is to help the patient recover from ulcerative colitis that related to their stomach and intestine. A patient who are fat will experience weight loss if they follow this diet for a long time because the body will not receive too much of essential nutrient. People who suffer from GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) are suitable for taking the gastric diet. This is due to it included soft food and a lot of fluids which make digestion more easier and faster the digestion process.In fact, bland food is easy to prepare, some food even no need to cook. Example like raw fresh fruit, we can easily peel them and add into our daily meals. Most of the people think that if they want a healthy lifestyle, they should have given up their favorite food to stay healthy. Actually, gastric or bland diet doesn’t mean that you can’t eat tasty food but just need to reduce the amount you take.Low cholesterol diet is a diet that limited foods that contain saturated fat which are cream, butter and more focus on unsaturated fat which are fish, vegetables and so on.The contents of low cholesterol diet are using olive oil to cook because high monounsaturated fatty acid lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol which is bad cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which is good cholesterol. Next, take more apples and beans because these contain soluble fiber in large quantities. Soluble fiber can lower cholesterol naturally because soluble fiber absorbs bile and then bile made from cholesterol once the liver wants to produce more bile it will pull out the cholesterol from the bloodstream. Besides, eat too much of sugars also can raises cholesterol levels because it increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Some of the sugars are difficult to break down. Cook with herbs and spices because it contains vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Eat ginger and garlic are effectively lowering cholesterol but need to eat often. An antioxidant can prevent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from oxidizing and avoid the forming of plaques in the arteries. The preparation of low cholesterol diet is used healthier fats which is use the oil with higher in monounsaturated fats because in room temperature monosaturated fats are liquid and use little oil to cook not deep fried. Next, remove the skin of the meats because it contains a lot of fats. Most healthy is breast meats. Try not to put condiments because it brings harm to human which can cause high cholesterol, obesity and so on. Try to use baking and roasting method to prepare meats. Effects for the patient with normal cholesterol levels reduce the risk of getting strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral artery disease. Minor chance of getting hypertension and promote weight loss.A therapeutic diet is a modification of a regular diet by controlling the intake of certain food and nutrients to promote health and recovery. It is a part of the treatment plan for a disease or a clinical condition. As student nurses, we also concerned about the nursing responsibilities in serving the therapeutic diet to the patients. First and foremost, we must assess the nutritional status and history of the patient by doing an interview. We should make sure that the correct meal is given to correct patient by recheck the order of the doctor. We shall provide a tidy and clean environment for them and assist them to be in a comfortable position, best to be in a sitting or high Fowler’s position. Besides that, we must assist the patient with hand hygiene, and oral hygiene whenever necessary.Sometimes the patient refuses to take the meal, complaining he does not have the appetite. The various step can be taken in this situation. We can reduce his psychological stress by listening to his concern, giving him the correct information and allays his fear. Based on the history taken, we can also make an alteration by providing familiar food for the patient. Most probably, encourage the family members to bring him his favorite food but have to follow the diet planned. We should also avoid unpleasant treatment immediately before and after the meal. Last but not least, we should relieve the illness symptoms that depress the appetite by giving medication based on the prescription of the doctor.