ABSTRACTComputers have revolutionized the world in the las decades and healthcare organizations

ABSTRACTComputers have revolutionized the world in the las decades and healthcare organizations have experienced some of the changes and benefits associated with their use. This purpose of this paper is to explore the social impacts of computers in the health industry of Malawi. A computer is a programmable device that can store, retrieve and process data. They accept data (input), process that data, produce output and store the results. The presence of computers in the health industry of Malawi has made work to be more organized. From administrative tasks to medical procedures, computers serve to simplify patient interactions. Streamline record keeping and improve some diagnostic and treatment technologies. Computers facilitate record keeping and calling up medical histories by making data entry and transfer easier. This data can easily be sent to other healthcare providers with a few keystrokes. In addition, this can save lives, ensuring that the doctors have complete information about patient allergies and previous conditions before taking actions. This paper will include a discussion on the social impact of computers in the health industry of Malawi, problems encountered in the health industry due to the use of computers, methods of using these computers in the health industry along with solutions and recommendations.BACKGROUNDThe social mark that computers have left in the health industry is quite noticeable. Although these computers exist in the health industry, not all medical personnel know how to use them which creates another problem. Malpractice can occur due to the lack of proper knowledge on how to use the computers. There is also the case of expenses when dealing with computers on both the medical facilities and the patients. Some procedures that require the use of computers are expensive and cannot be afforded by everyone. As a result, only the few privileged have access. Buying and maintaining these computers alone is expensive and takes toll on whoever is paying the bills. This is among the reasons Malawi does not have some medical equipment in prompts patients to go outside the country. This option is however only available to those who belong to the upper class. SOCIAL IMPACTS OF COMPUTERS IN MALAWI HEALTH INDUSTRYSocial impact is the change an organization has on the wellbeing of the community. It can also be defined as the positive change that addresses a pressing social challenge. Computers have made such changes in different industries of Malawi. Written below are some of the social impacts of computers in Malawi health industry. Our world has been drastically changed by digital technology like smart phones, tablets and web-enabled devices have transformed our daily lives and the way we communicate. Medicine is in information-rich enterprise. A greater flow of information within a digital health care infrastructure, created by electronic health records (EHRS) encompasses and can change the way care is delivered and compensated. With EHRs, information is available whenever and wherever it is needed. There is improved patient care, increased patient participation, practiced efficiencies and cost savings. (HealthIT.gov, n.d.)The ministry of health, in collaboration with the Baobab Health Trust, a local government organization installed electronic medical record (EMR) systems in public health facilities in Malawi. Key stakeholders in the endeavor include the ministry of health, hospital directors, district heath officers, health workers and the Baobab Health Trust. The goal was to deploy EM systems that would assist in in improving patient outcomes and provide strategic information for hospitals management of health care system in general. EMR software modules are touch based, with a simplified interface for use by health workers, meaning that even those with basic skills in information and communication technology would be able to use them. (HealthIT.gov, n.d.)The national Registration Bureau of Malawi collaborated with the government to pilot an electronic information system for recording birth and death (Organzation, 2010-2018). Every citizen of Malawi is expected to have a national idea lack of which would have negative effects on the person. For instance, no national idea means no salary or no help in government hospitals. This system also led to the registration of babies and dead people. All babies are required to be registered into the National Bureau system thereby making it easier for the government to keep track of the population. If all babies and the deceased are registered into the system, it would make it easier and convenient to keep track of the population. In terms of the deceased, registration includes cause of death. This would in turn help the health industry in the sense that they would be able to keep track of the number of people dying from diseases and all sorts of health problems. Knowing these numbers would tell them whether or not there is an increase in infection (malaria, cholera and AIDS) or a decrease. In 2005, a task force created by the department for HIV and AIS, ministry of health Malawi (MOH), investigated the feasibility of introducing computers to capture patient data. Two EMR operational models were considered. The first one required a clerk to enter patient information into a single desktop computer. The second ne had computers in every clinic room, connected to a central server that stored the data. With the latter model, healthcare workers could use touchscreen computers to enter patient information during clinical encounters. (19Ju) Pilot implementation started at the ART clinic at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, in April 2006, funded by the Global Aids Program of the Centers for disease Control and Prevention in Malawi. The selection of QECH was based on both high patient burden resulting in failure to manually produce quarterly reports and ease of site access. Patient treatment cards and clinic registers were maintained until there was evidence that the EMR was working reliably, had been incorporated into daily use, and was institutionalized within the clinic.Data that is stored in electronic devices is easy to retrieve than that stored in on paper. For starters, paper takes up more space and is hard to keep track of unlike using electronics. Paper can easily be lost whilst data saved on electronics can still be retrieved if lost. Most hospitals that use electronics have a server to store up the data in case the computers are stolen or damaged, they can still retrieve the data. When health care providers have access to complete and accurate information, patients receive better medical care. Electronic health records can improve the ability to diagnose diseases and reduce-even prevent-medical errors, improving patient outcomes. Doctors or nurses can easily pull up a patients record by simply pulling up the patient’s name or number from the computer. Likewise, a first timer’s records can easily be stored in the computer without fear of losing or mixing it up. The data is reliable and can help the health care providers to better diagnose the problem sooner. The patient’s record’s include previous infections or diseases and allergies that would be very helpful for the diagnosis. If for instance the patient happens to be allergic to Morphine, this would show up in their patient records and the doctor would use some other alternative narcotic pain reliever. This way, a tragedy is prevented especially if the patient happens to be in an emergency room where time to dig up files would not be available. The doctor can simply pull up the patients records and check for any allergies in the case that the patient is unconscious and has no guardian to tell the doctors of these allergies.Computers can help risk management by providing alerts and reminders. Take for instance a case where a doctor is performing surgery. Using computers to monitor the progress of the surgery is very helpful in the sense that the computer would provide an alert if there is a problem. This however would not be possible in the absence of the computer. Medical accidents and errors could easily be prevented due to the use of computers. In turn the survival rate of the patient is increased.Due to the introduction of computers in the health industry of Malawi, diagnosis of some diseases has become easier. There are some diseases like cancer for instance that are hard to diagnose without the help of technological devices. Screening diseases like breast cancer, diabetes and cervical cancer has been made easier. An example is a Magnetic resonance imaging also known as an MRI machine. An MRI is test that uses powerful magnets, radio waves and a computer to make detailed pictures inside the body. This machine helps a doctor diagnose a disease or injury and it can monito how well you are doing with a treatment. They can be done on different parts of the body and are especially useful for looking at soft tissues and nervous system. (WebMD, 2005-2019)A typical MRI machine is a large tube with a hole at both ends. A magnet surrounds the tube and the person lies on a table that slides all the way into the tube. The MRI creates a strong magnetic field inside the body. A computer takes the signals from the MRI and uses them to make a series of pictures. Each picture shows a thin slice of the body. A loud thumping or tapping sound s heard during the test as the machine creates energy to take pictures inside the body. A specially trained doctor called a radiologist will read the result of the MRI and explain them. (WebMD, 2005-2019) The first ever Magnetic Resonance Imaging center was opened at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre Malawi thanks to the combined efforts of the Malawi government, Michigan State University, College of Medicine, national Institutes for Health (USA) and Generic Electric Health Care who donated an actual machine according to radiologist Dr. Sam Kampondeni. (Association, 2009)Computers also help to generate better and accurate result. Say for instance a patient goes to the hospital for tests-be it HIV, Malaria- results would easily be generated through lab tests. The lab tests show whether the person is infected or not which would determine which course of action to take.Providers who have electronic health information about the entire population of patients they serve can look more meaningfully at the needs of patients who for instant suffer from a specific condition say heart disease or high blood pressure or are currently taking specific medication. These conditions require regular checkup and in the case where the patients require treatment for another condition, knowledge of this condition is a must. These Electronic health records function helps providers identify and work with patients to manage specific risk factors or combinations of risk factors to improve patient outcomes and malpractice. An Electronic health record is more than a digital version of a patient’s paper chart. An EHR can contain a patient’s medical history, diagnoses, medications, treatment plans, immunization dates, allergies, radiology images and laboratory test results.An ultrasound scan, also known as a sonogram is a procedure that uses a high frequency sound waves to create an image of part of the inside of the body. It is used to monitor unborn babies, diagnose conditions or guide surgeon during certain procedures. (Mercer, n.d.) When the ultrasound probe is used, it gives off high frequency sound waves that cannot be heard but bounce off different body parts and create “echo’s” that are picked up by the probe and turned into moving image. The image is then displayed on a monitor while the scan is carried out. (NHS, n.d.) Having an ultrasound scan is beneficial to both the mother and baby, the mother in the sense that she is made aware of any problems that arise with the baby after performing the scan. If there are any abnormalities with the baby, then the doctor’s review’s all the possible options and solutions are provided hence preventing any risks and future problems. She also has the option of being notified of the gender of the baby. Since these scans are very beneficial as already mentioned above, they have resulted in the increase of normal births since ricks are prevented and future problems are averted. If the number of babies born without any problems is higher than those born with issues, it means that the amount of medicine and money spent on them will be diverted elsewhere.Healthcare information Technology(HIT) is changing the way healthcare industry operates and has greatly reduced waste and improved health outcomes. They have increased the efficiency, increased positive patient outcomes and population health. EHRs have helped to keep a better surveillance of infectious diseases, improved management of patients with chronic diseases and identities populations with higher risk factors. (HealthIT.gov, n.d.)The introduction of computers in the health industry has made things easier. Diagnoses can sometimes take long, however with the introduction of computers in the health industry, both the doctors and the patients save time. For instance, diagnosing using an ultrasound machine or lab tests is arguably faster than old ways of diagnosing. Sending X-ray scans for example would take up to a week in the past but now take no longer than an hour. (Krisjan, 2018)There is accuracy through the use of computers. There is a very low chance that the machine will make mistakes hence the doctors are sure able to properly diagnose someone. The health of the Malawian citizens is steadily increasing. More people are helped since the work is mostly done by computer devices. Scans and lab tests help speed things up successfully. Malpractice is also avoided hence increasing the efficiency of doctors. Healthcare require large amounts of administrative transaction, including processes such as receiving payments from public health care systems and making insurance claims to companies. Development is promoted in the country since the introduction of computers in the health industry has resulted in better healthcare. If the people have access to better health care, then they are able to focus on other issues that are essential to development. There have been cases whereby people who could have contributed to the development of the country died or spent most of their time in hospitals due to the lack of proper health care. The introduction of computer devices in hospitals has enabled doctors to better diagnose diseases like cancer and to provide the right treatment. Considering how nearly impossible it is to diagnose a cancer patient without the use of any computer device, one can easily see the social impact these computers have left brought on the health industry.Issues like surgery have overtime become easier to conduct due to the availability of computer devices that enable the easy success of the surgery. There are machines that help doctors by showing the possible route to take in order to avoid damaging any vital organs. Brain scans are easy to conduct and so are brain surgeries.Some electronic devices that are used in hospital seem so simple yet are essential in the diagnosis of a patient. Such devices include a thermometer that is used to take down one’s temperature, a stethoscope that is used to check one heartbeat and a scale that is used to measure one’s body weight. These devices are not only used in hospitals or healthcare centers but also in households due to the simplicity in their use. People are now able to use thermometer’s in the safety of their homes instead of spending their money to go to the hospital or health center for a body temperature check.The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. Patients who complain of chest pains or shortness of breath will often have an ECG as one of the first tests to help determine if there is heart attack present. Even if there is no heart attack, the ECG can help decide what the problem is. Computer programs are able to interpret the ECG, and as artificial intelligence they are often correct. The ECG is a useful way to find out whether one’s blood pressure has caused any damage to the heart or blood vessels.Patients may be able to pay lower costs because of the presence of computers. Computers make it possible to run tests and diagnoses without having to physically test the patient. The computer runs through scenarios and suggest possible solutions hence making the job easier for the doctor and decreasing the costs for the patient since actual test that cost money won’t be performed.To summer up, one of the social impacts that computers have made in the health industry is the reduction of malpractice cases due to the efficiency and minimum errors that they make. Computers have also provided better healthcare due to the presence of machines like the ECG machine, the ultrasound, MRI and the EMR.REFERENCES• (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2019, from https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/artile?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000319• (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2019, from HealthIT.gov: https://www.healthit.gov/topic/health-it-basics/benefits-ehrs• (n.d.). Retrieved July 2019, from NHS: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ultrasound-scan/• Association, M. (2009, March). Malawi Med J. Retrieved 2019, from Malawi Medical Journal:the Journal of MEdical Association of Malawi: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article/PMC3345719/#!po=7.14286• HealthIT.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2019, from https://www.health.gov/success-story/dr-ashinsky-achieves-meangful-use-improves-care-qaulity–through-intergration• Krisjan. (2018, December 13). Maverick Angels. Retrieved JUly 2019, from http://maverickangels.com/negative-effects-of-medical-technology/• Mercer, E. (n.d.). (Leaf Group Ltd) Retrieved July 2019, from https://itstillworks.com/impact-computer-medical-practice-1911.tml• Organzation, W. H. (2010-2018). Retrieved July 30, 2019, from https://www.aho.afro.who.int/profiles_information/index.php/Malawi:Health_information,_research,_evidence_and_knowledge#Level_of_access_o_IT_infrastracture• WebMD. (2005-2019). Retrieved July 2019, from WebMD LLC: https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-a-mri

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