AbstractOrganic farming is a sustainable form of agriculture that provides consumers with

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Abstract:Organic farming is a sustainable form of agriculture that provides consumers with fresh natural farm products. Organic farming is work synchronization with the nature rather than more it. This objective is achieved by using techniques to improve crop yields without harming the natural environment as well as the people who live and work in it. Organic farming offers an exclusive eco-friendly practices, which is required less external inputs. Conventional farming is capital which is requires more manufactured inputs and energy as compared to knowledge. Organic agriculture uses energy more efficiently than conventional agriculture. As compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming produces cost-effective food products, free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It also provides employment opportunities and economic benefits to local communities. The methods of organic farming are the intensive to prove more cost effective in the long run. Since organic agriculture supplies more greenhouse gases in the soil, farmers across the climate disaster by the switching to organic methods. Enough evidence are available to prove that organic crops are the better source to nutrients to their corresponding conventional forms. Organic systems give higher animal immunity and increased disease resistance to plants, with 50% less in crop a sustained shelf life. Organic agriculture merges modernism, custom, and science to manage shared surroundings encouraging fair relationships high quality of life. Introduction: API is Latin for bee, and agricultural is the science and practice of beekeeping. The words if agriculture and beekeeping tent to be applied loosely and used synonymous in the same parts of the world. Significant volumes of the honey are still obtained by the plundering wild colonies of bees. This honey hunting cannot be properly described a beekeeping. The maintenance of the biodiversity and pollination of the crops are the most valuable services of the bees. Beekeeping is one of the oldest tradition for collecting the honey. Honey has been farming is becoming popular due its market demand in national and in also international markets as well. Not only the farmers make a sweet dividend but beekeeping also increase in the agriculture productivity by the pollination. Honey bees also produce honey, bee wax, and royal jelly thus giving by the additional benefits to the farmers. After the successive losses in the traditionally grown crops, farmers are also inclining towards bee by the way of organic. To make maximize the agricultural production, honeybee can be used an important input agent in organic farming. The standard for organic honey production are more difference than the producing other organic livestock productions. Managing the honey from bee is very difficult so the general rules of the applicable for the other livestock cannot be implemented in the case of organic honey production. Understand the bees according to their needs to the bee colony cycle and the expected bee products. Being proactive to multiply the bee colonies and their expanding the production instead of waiting for the natural swarming of the bees. Regular monitoring of the bee activities is one of the most important to avoid absconding and swarming of the bees and to ensure a healthy colony for the bees. Recognize that by the providing the enough foraging sources, and hive space for the bees at the right time of the bee colony cycle, honey yields can be greatly increased. Beekeeping will offer a good opportunity in organic farming to start up a small-scale business. Farming planning for commercial honey bee for farming should consider taking agriculture training. Usually a colony consists of a queen, several thousands of workers, and a few hundred drones. There is a division of labor and specialization in the performance of various functions.*Background:Contriving for bee to the nest in human-made hives, people have been able to the insects and harvest excess honey. Leaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing which lies just dorsal to its food stomach. The honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or roughly of the bee’s unloaded weight which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill. The forager bees then return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. It creates a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. It is then placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content (about 50 to 70%) and natural yeasts which, unchecked, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment. Bees are some few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, thus the hive bees constantly regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a fairly constant temperature in the honey-storage areas around 35 °C (95 °F). Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species which are found in South and Central America.*Methodology:Sampling: A profile of each operation is maintained on the Mass List Sampling Frame (hereafter List Frame) to allow Mass to identify operations eligible for sampling. For bee and honey operations, the List Frame is a current and reduplicated list of agricultural operations, and all current bee and honey operations are assumed as on the list. Survey population definition and sampling are completed annually. Each bee and honey operation is classified into one of the mutually exclusive strata based on number of total colonies controlled by the operation, and whether operation is located in multiple states. If an unlisted apiary is identified at any time, the operation is added to the List Frame. The survey sample is drawn annually; hence, apiaries discovered after the sample has been drawn may be ineligible to be a part of the survey sample until the following year. Data Collection: All federal collections require approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Mass must document the public need for the data, apply sound statistical practice, prove the data does not already exist elsewhere, and ensure the public is not excessively burdened. The Bee and Honey Inquiry questionnaire must display an active OMB that gives Mass the authority to conduct the survey, a statement of the purpose of the survey and the use of the data being collected, a response burden statement that gives an estimate of the time required to complete the form, a confidentiality statement that the respondent’s information will only be used for statistical purposes in combination with other producers, and a statement saying that response to the survey is voluntary and not required by law. All use the same, standardized questionnaire for data collection. Questionnaire content and format are evaluated annually through a specifications process where requests for changes are evaluated and approved or disapproved. Sampled operations receive a resurvey letter explaining the purpose and importance of the survey, and that they are being contacted for survey purposes only. Attached to the letter is a complete copy of the paper questionnaire and a pass code which can be used to complete the survey securely online. RF Os are responsible for their data collection strategy, but RF Os must include provisions for respondents to report securely online. If response is not received by mail or online, respondents are contacted by computer-assisted telephone interviews.Data Analysis: Edited data processed through an interactive analysis tool which displays data for all reports by item. Outliers and unusual data relationships become evident, and assigned staff review them to determine if they are correct. The tool allows comparison to an operation’s previously reported data to detect large changes in the operation. Data found as in error are corrected, while data found as correct are retained.Discussion:While previous studies have found that long-term pollen trapping can have negative consequences on colony productivity, population, and even survival our study found no impact of short-term pollen trapping on brood production during a period of high pollen availability. This is important to establish because colonies without adequate pollen supply can maintain brood rearing for only a short time (Bretschneider and Crailsheim 2010). First, workers consume stored bee bread, then nurse bees deplete their bodily reserves to ensure the continued protein feeding of developing brood (Haydar 1935). Finally, without incoming pollen, even short-term pollen dearth can lead to a shortening of larval development time, and the cannibalism of young larvae (Schick and Crailsheim 2001). While cannibalized larvae can be used to supplement the protein status of the colony allowing remaining brood to be reared successfully, malnourished brood has been observed to have impairments such as malformations (Jay 1974), reduced life span, and smaller size. Finally, adult bees without access to adequate protein may also have decreased longevity (see discussion in Bretschneider and Crailsheim 2010), and decreased development of ovaries and hypo pharyngeal glands (Penal and Currie 2000, Hoover et al. 2006), thus impacting their ability to rear brood. Pollen deprivation can, therefore, have long-term impacts on colony health and survival, effects that we did not observe with our short-term trapping during a period of abundant pollen.Pollen production allows beekeepers to diversify their sources of revenue, mitigating the effects of fluctuations in honey price as an international commodity, and enabling beekeepers with direct sales to diversify their product range by selling pollen or other value-added products containing pollen. Our results (Tables 1 and 2) demonstrate that beekeepers can increase their revenue by 27–92% by collecting and selling pollen itself. The magnitude of the revenue increase depends on how the pollen is sold bulk clean and dry 68% vs. bulk fresh 38%, bulk clean and dry 68% vs. direct sales clean and dry 27%, as well as which colonies are trapped for pollen all colonies 68% vs. targeted high producers 92%. In addition, value-added products such as soaps, lotions, cosmetics, and supplements could be produced with the collected pollen to further increase revenues. However, there is also a large variation in the costs associated with collecting, cleaning, and storing pollen, as well as in the production, and sales of value-added products, specific to the management of individual beekeeping operations.We found an average of 5.89 kg reduction in honey production among colonies fitted with pollen traps. This could be due to the presence of the trap itself, physically impeding foragers. Alternately, the removal of some pollen from the incoming foragers may increase the need for pollen foragers, reducing the availability of foragers to collect nectar to produce honey. If the former is true, improvements to trap design to minimize the disruption of traffic at the colony entrance could significantly reduce the impact on colony-level honey production. Indeed, previous studies have varied substantially in their findings regarding the magnitude of decrease in honey production caused by pollen trapping, with some studies in some years finding no effect, and others a substantial reduction in honey. However, even within a single study, using a single trap type, substantial variation remains present. For example, in the Peace Region of Alberta, Nelson et al. (1987) found a significant reduction in honey production in only 1 years of a 3-yr pollen trapping study, with a reduction of 31.3% of honey production (79 vs. 115 kg). Despite this reduction, however, Nelson et al. (1987) found that in all 3 yr beekeepers would receive more revenue with pollen trapping than without (21–26% increase in revenue with pollen trapping compared to honey production alone). Duff and Fur gala (1986b) found that full-time pollen trapping for the entire foraging season decreased honey production more than part-time pollen production (every other week), and that both treatments caused increased moisture levels in honey compared to unstrap controls, thus affecting honey quality. Interestingly, they also found that colonies fitted with a trap that was not engaged (and therefore did not remove pollen) also had a reduction in honey production, suggesting that in part, the traps themselves act as a physical barrier to foraging.CONCLUSIONS:Beekeeping in the study district is largely based on traditional methods, which has greatly contributed to low productivity and inconsistent quality of beehive products. There has also been destruction of trees, which are the main source of nectar and pollen through wild fires, cutting for firewood and making beehives. Improved honey productivity is hampered greatly by poor cropping methods, poor and postharvest handling, poor production technologies, poor management practices, lack of extension services market, and market information. The above is compounded by the producers’ lack knowledge and skills on better husbandry and cropping methods, poor harvesting methods and poor handling. Due to nature of cropping of bees, there are excellent prospects to market the beehive products as organic. The source of nectar and pollen are the wild forest trees thereby implying that local honey can be sold as organic. However, mainly because of absence/lack of technological change, and institutional support, the district in general and the rural beekeeping households in particular have not been sufficiently benefited from the sub sector. Therefore, there is a need to promote the development of the beekeeping sector. Education and price are found as a significant factor that promotes the productivity level of honey production while the size, and the number of the hives, farm size, household labor and beekeeping experience used as an important input for the production determines the quantity of honey produced. Yet, despite all the constraints and challenges currently facing the beekeeping sub sector, there are still enormous opportunities and potentials to boost the production and to maximize the outputs of the resource to improve the livelihoods of the farmers.RECOMMENDATIONS:Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended, therefore, to increase the production, productivity and its economic contributions to the livelihoods of honey producers in the study area farmers should be given adequate training on rudiments of traditional bee farming using community based/informal education. Thus, beekeepers are therefore, aware of their potentiality capable of increasing not only the profitability of the bee enterprise, but also made efficient use of bee farming resources. In the area, beekeeping is predominantly practiced by and defined as a man’s occupation. The district agricultural office and other who wants to develop beekeeping in the study area should encourage women to participate in beekeeping and support them through provision of training, credit services and moderns beekeeping technologies. It has been found that absconding, migration and swarming were major problems of beekeeping in the study areas so to minimize the problems appropriate management practices should be practiced. These include improving handling of colonies, beekeepers of the area should be aware on the possibilities of maintaining their colonies for successive harvesting, regular supervision and monitoring of the colonies. Rendering of intensive training for beekeeper farmers that cover the overall aspect of beekeeping with practical exercise is essential to maximize the honey production. All Development Agents who would be involved in beekeeping must have the training first to enable them adequately provide technical assistance to the beneficiaries. The survey result indicated that the overall honey marketing system of the study area during the survey period was found as traditional and under developed and beekeepers are not benefited from the marketing systems. Thus, beekeepers should organize themselves in to groups and producer societies at local, regional and national level. This enables them to fix the local market prices and to penetrate the export market. Emphasis should be given to the on bee product diversification. Wax produced in the area is either discarded as well or put in to domestic use. Therefore, creating awareness on the value of beeswax and other hive products and processing and marketing mechanism should be designed to ensure the right benefit from the activity. Government and Non-government bodies should Endeavour to stimulate farmers to boost honey production by providing and subsidizing if need to be necessary supports and enabling which provides impetus that will ease farmers’ transition from traditional to modern beekeeping easy.