According to WHO, prematurity are all births prior to 37 weeks of gestation are completed. An estimate of 15 million babies, are born preterm each year and this number keeps escalating. Preterm was more common amongst women with low socioeconomic background. Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of death among children who are less than 5 years of age, liable for Preterm birth occurs for a variety of reasons. Most preterm births happen spontaneously, but some are due to early induction of labor or caesarean birth, whether for medical or non-medical reasons. The Millennium developmental goal four is to reduce child mortality. Improving the quality of nursing care for antenatal and perinatal services can help accelerate the Millennium development goal four. Prevention, promotion and supporting for the healthy child should be empowered in the community. Curative care and public health care is correspondingly important. According to Ministry of Health, Fiji, more than 80% of all childhood deaths occur in the three divisional hospitals. In achieving Millennium developmental goal four a good quality hospital care can increase the influence of public health care through interventions on decrease mortality and morbidity in children. One of the major complications in mortality in children less than 5years of age is Pulmonary Hypertension, which is not widely researched as there are limited literature reviews. Pulmonary hypertension is increasingly recognized as a source of significant morbidity and even mortality in premature infants. Infants with Broncho-pulmonary Dysplasia are at even greater risk for pulmonary hypertension. As defined by Ann. R. Stark et al. (2018) Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn occurs when pulmonary vascular resistance remains abnormally elevated after birth, resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood at the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus through fetal circulatory pathways. This in turn leads to severe hypoxemia that may not respond to conventional respiratory support. The prevalence of persistent pulmonary hypertension in neonates has been estimated at 1.9 per 1000 live births. As a nurse our main focus in providing care for a child with Pulmonary Hypertension is oxygen therapy, Ventilation care, incubator care, to ensure infection control is closely monitored and nutritional needs are met. Information was gathered through updated literature reviews from the years 2014 to 2019 databases. We were able to retrieve 12 researched articles which were qualitative and quantitative. Studies were done in the United States, Thailand, Israel and in the Netherlands which were used to extract relevant information through the use of following tools: Data extraction, clinical documents, medical record analysis, biological sampling and interviews.
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