Adriana Zajac 7th Period Mr Sosa English 2 HonorsSpring Final Exam Study Guide 1 In

Table of Contents

Adriana Zajac 7th Period Mr. Sosa English 2 HonorsSpring Final Exam Study Guide 1) In 2600 B.C. Greek speaking warrior tribes marched from Central Europe and Southwestern Russia and invaded Macedonia, to the northeast of Greece. In 1900 B.C. they began to move southwest into Greece. They met natives that lived in a female dominated society. By 1600 B.C. they had conquered all of Greece. They were called the Mycenaeans, named after their most powerful community (Mycenae). They worshipped the Mother Goddess/Great Goddess. Between 1750 and 1450 B.C. they produced their greatest achievements. They now had written records, palaces, and indoor plumbing. Scholars and writers became prominent at this time. One of the most significant was Homer. Homer related myths that had been memorized and passes on orally into written works that can be read. He helped their society become more invested in religious myths as they become more obtainable.2) Athena – Goddess of war and wisdom.Owl – An owl is the wisest of all animals. Athena gifted her people with the owl, and it would never leave her side.Jason – Athena helped Jason and the Argonauts when they were squeezed by two rocks.Eros- God of love and desire.Dolphin – Eros loves riding and dancing on dolphins. They acted as his protector.Torch – They can relate to a wedding torch which symbolizes loving someone so much that no one else can match those feelings.Hades – God of the Underworld and ruler of the dead.Cerberus – Hades’ loyal and vicious watchdog. He has 3 heads, the tail of a serpent, a mane of snakes, a lion’s claws, and teeth that could rip flesh.Screech Owl – It is a loyal servant to Hades. It always stayed by his side no matter what being trusting and thoughtful.Poseidon – God of the seas, earthquakes, and horses.Horse – He created the horse while trying to impress Demeter, the goddess he was in love with.Hippocampi – A sea horse with two fore feet and a body ending in the tail, helped Poseidon save sailors from drowning.Dionysus – God of art and literature. Centaur – They were sent by Zeus to protect Dionysus from Hera.Leopard – Dionysus was often found riding on the back of a leopard which symbolizes freedom and unleased desires.Demeter – Goddess of agriculture and vegetation.Torch – In art, she is found holding one or two torches. They were used to find her daughter.Serpent – They were depicted in paintings with her. They represented agriculture and being a mother to all.Persephone – Goddess of agriculture (especially grain) and Queen of the Underworld.Hades – Hades abducted her due to his love for her. He forced her to marry him, making her queen of the Underworld Pomegranate – They represent life, regeneration, and marriage, by eating pomegranate seeds she tied herself to hades.Hermes – Messenger of the Gods and Patron of Shepherds.Winged Sandals – They were given to him by Zeus and made by Hephaestus. They helped him travel all over the world.Apollo – He played a big part in Hermes becoming an Olympian. When Hermes was born, he stole Apollo’s cattle. He played the lyre and sang so well that Apollo forgave him.Zeus – God of lightning, rain, and winds and God of all Gods.Cyclopes – They helped Zeus create the lightning bolt.Eagle – Zeus had an eagle named The Eagle of Zeus that was his personal messenger and companion.Hera – Goddess of marriage and birth, Queen of all Gods.Peacock – They are her symbol of royalty. She was always depicted sitting at her throne with a peacock by her side.Diadem – By wearing this crown, Hera was considered to be a “great” goddess. They are also a symbol of regal power.Ares – God of war.Aphrodite – During his time at Mount Olympus, he was involved in the adultery with Aphrodite, a wife of Hephaestus.Trojans – During the Trojan War, Ares took allegiance with the Trojans.Aphrodite – Goddess of beauty, love, and fertility.Dove – The dove is sacred to her as it symbolizes love and beauty.Swan – The swan is a symbol of beauty, love, and grace. The way the bird swiftly glides through the water is also a symbol of romance. Artemis – Goddess of hunting, wild animals, and the wilderness.Boar – Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis after he continued to boast that he was a far greater hunter than her.Dog – Artemis is often depicted in art with a dog by her side. This dog was said to help her hunt.Apollo – God of the sun, light, music, and prophecy.Medicine – Apollo is often associated with healing and was thought to deliver medicine but also plague.Colonists – Apollo is the patron defender of herds and flocks. He helped them reach their destination safely. 3) Medusa – Medusa was a monster, one of the three Gorgon sisters. She is described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair. Those who gazed upon her face would turn to stone. (Perseus)The Fates – The Fates are describes as three very old women. They spun the threads of human destiny. Their names were Clotho, Lacresis, and Atropos. Clotho’s’ job was to spin the thread of human fate, Lacresis’ was to dispense it, and Atropos’ to cut it. When the thread was cut, it determined an individual’s death. (Perseus)Harpies – Harpies were mythical monsters that had the form of a bird with a human female face. They were often agents of punishment. They abducted people and tortured them on their way to Hades’ domain. They were employed by the Gods as instruments for the punishment of the guilty. (Jason)Sirens – Sirens are creatures that are half bird and half woman who lured sailors to destruction by the sweetness of her song. They were said to be daughters of the sea god Phorcys, the river god Achelous, or one of the Muses. They were human companions of Persephone. After she was carried off by Hades, they sought her everywhere, and finally prayed for wings to fly across the sea, which they received. (Jason)Cerberus – Cerberus was the three-headed dog of Greek mythology. His job was to guard the entrance to the Underworld. Only spirits were allowed in the Underworld and no one was permitted to leave. He represented what Greeks feared most in dogs. Typhon was his father. (Eros and Psyche)Charon – Charon is the son of Eres and Nyx (Night), whose duty it was to ferry over the River Styx and Acheron those souls of the deceased who had received the rites of burial. As reward, he received the coin that has placed in the mouth of the corpse. He is depicted in an Attic vase dating from about 550 B.C.E. as a grisly old man. Eventually, he came to be regarded as the image pf death and the world below. (Eros and Psyche)Centaurs – Centaurs are mythical creatures with the upper body of a man and lower body of a horse. They were traditionally the offspring of Ixion who was the King of the Lapiths in Tressaly. Centaurs were best known for their fight with the Lapiths. They lost the battle and were driven from Mount Pelion. In later Greek times drawing the chariot of the magic god Dionysus bound and ridden by Eros, the god of love. (Heracles)Minotaur – The Minotaur is a monster of Crete with the body of a man and the head of a bull. The Minotaur was Minos’ bull. He was the offspring of Pasiphae, who was the wife of Minos. A snow white bull was sent to Minos by Poseidon for sacrifice. However, Minos kept it alive and as punishment, Pasiphae fell in love with it. Theseus killed the Minotaur after being sent to be devoured by the Minotaur by Minos. (Heracles)Hydra – The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna, more often known simply as the Hydra, is a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology. Its lair was the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, which was also the site of the myth of the Danaïdes. The Hydra was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. It had poisonous breath and blood so virulent that even its scent was deadly. The Hydra possessed many heads, the exact number of which varies according to the source. (Heracles)4) Hercules – The main obstacle Hercules faced was having to complete the twelve impossible tasks. Hercules, born in Thebes, is the son of Zeus and Alcmene, a mortal whom Zeus deceives by disguising himself as her husband. His extreme physical strength makes up for deficiencies in intelligence and patience. He can be impatient, emotional, and careless, nonetheless, he has boundless courage and a noble sense of right and wrong. One night, two giant snakes attack him and his half-brother, Iphicles, in their nursery, but Hercules strangles them both at once. After conquering the warlike Minyans, he marries the princess Megara and has 3 children with her. King Eurytheus becomes jealous of how popular Hercules is becoming, so he orders him to complete twelve impossible tasks After completing all twelve tasks, he eventually is given Hera’s daughter, Hebe, by Hera herself, as his wife. Hercules the hero then becomes Hercules the god.Hercules was considered heroic because he was strong and courageous. He endured great hardships that would’ve caused anyone else to crumble. He also had a very good moral character.Psyche and Eros – The main obstacle Psyche faced was having to complete the three impossible tasks, and the main obstacle Eros faced was concealing himself from Psyche.Psyche was a woman gifted with extreme beauty and grace. Being jealous due to men’s admiration for Psyche, Goddess Aphrodite asked her son, the powerful master of love, Eros, to poison men’s souls in order to kill off their desire for Psyche. But Eros also fell in love with Psyche and was completely mesmerized by her beauty. Eros guided Apollo to give the oracle that Psyche would marry an ugly beast whose face she would never be able to see, and he would wait for her at the top of the mountain. After the wedding of Psyche and her arranged marriage, Psyche was able to be with her husband only at night. Even without seeing his face, she fell in love with him. She talked about her happiness with her sisters and confined in them how sad she was she couldn’t see his face. Her jealous sisters persuaded Psyche that her lover is not only an ugly beast but also a monster who would eventually kill her, so she should kill him first to save herself. With an oil lamp and knife in her hands, Psyche one night was ready for murder, but when she enlightened the face of her beast-husband she saw the beautiful God Eros. Caught by surprise, she spilled the oil on his face. Eros woke up and flew away telling Psyche that she betrayed him and ruined their relationship so that they could never be united again. She searched everywhere for him, finally begging Aphrodite to see him. She gave her three impossible tasks to complete which she did, allowing them to be together. Because of their love, Psyche was also granted immortality by Zeus.Psyche was considered heroic because she did whatever it took to get to the one she loved. She completed three tasks that were considered impossible, just so that she and Eros could be together. She was also extremely intelligent.Jason – The main obstacle Jason faced was obtaining the Golden Fleece.Jason was theson of Aeson, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. His father’s half-brother, Pelias, seized Iolcos, and for safety Jason was sent away to the Centaur Chiron. Returning as a young man, Jason was promised his inheritance if he fetched the Golden Fleece for Pelias, a seemingly impossible task. After recruiting the Argonauts, and going on many adventures with them, Jason obtained the fleece with the help of the enchantress Medea, whom he married. On their return Medea murdered Pelias, but she and Jason were driven out by Pelias’ son and had to take refuge with King Creon of Corinth. Later Jason deserted Medea for Creon’s daughter. One day he was sitting on his ship, remembering the days of his former glory, when a rotten beam fell upon him and killed him.Jason was considered heroic because his skills were organization and delegation. He was able to gather up the world’s greatest heroes, and take them on a long journey without rivalry among them. His ambition knew no bounds.Perseus – The main obstacle Perseus faced was having to behead Medusa.Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius of Argos. As an infant he was cast into the sea in a chest with his mother by Acrisius, because it had been prophesied that he would be killed by his grandson. After Perseus had grown up on the island of Seriphus, where the chest had been swept to, the King tricked Perseus into promising to obtain the head of Medusa, the only mortal among the Gorgons. Aided by Hermes and Athena, Perseus tricked the sisters of the Gorgons, into helping him by seizing the one eye and one tooth that the sisters shared and not returning them until they provided him with winged sandals, the cap of Hades, a curved sword, or sickle, to decapitate Medusa, and a bag in which to conceal the head. Because the gaze of Medusa turned all who looked at her to stone, Perseus guided himself by her reflection in a shield given him by Athena and beheaded Medusa as she slept. He then returned to Seriphus and rescued his mother by turning Polydectes and his supporters to stone at the sight of Medusa’s head.Perseus was considered heroic because of his strength, intelligence, and determination. He never gave up even when his task seemed impossible to complete. He also traveled alongside gods on his quest.Theseus – The main obstacle Theseus faced was having to find and kill the Minotaur in the Labyrinth.Eros used his power to shoot an arrow at Zeus to make him fall in love with the mortal princess, Europa. Zeus then turns into a bull, so he can form a bond with her. After he gains her trust as the bull, he kidnaps her and takes her to the Island of Crete and forces her to marry him. Eventually one of their children, Minos, claimed title of the throne. When Theseus came around, he didn’t find out he was set to inherit the throne until he was 15. At this time, he traveled to his city through the territories of many dangerous criminals, defeating them all. Soon after taking the throne, Theseus found out about the agreement that 14 Athenians would be sent across the ocean to be eaten by the Minotaur. Instead, Theseus goes along with them, killing the Minotaur and ending the cruel tradition. After many years of ruling and causing unnecessary invasions, Theseus was killed when he was pushed off a steep cliff by Lycomedes. Theseus was considered heroic because of his need to go above and beyond to help people. Most of the heroic deeds he has accomplished were done of his own free will and were to help others. He risked his life several time, but used his great strength and intelligence to prevail.Three Values of Grecian Society:-Heroism – Moral behavior and karma -Great respect for their gods 5) Telos – an ultimate object or aim – Macbeth’s telos was to become king.Nostos – a theme used in Ancient Greek literature which includes an epic hero returning home by sea – Theseus returned home by sea after killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth.Kleos – glory earned by accomplishing a great deed – After Beowulf killed Grendel he earned much kleos.Hammartia – a negative trait that the character exhibits excessively that ultimately leads to their downfall – Psyche’s hammartias, curiosity, naiveté, vulnerable, angered Eros and Aphrodite and lead to her downfall. Hubris – excessive pride or self-confidence – Beowulf’s hubris is what eventually got him killed.Ate – Greek goddess of mischief and rash action – Hercules often became afflicted with temporary madness (Ate).Arête – excellence of any kind – Hercules combined in his nature the arête of all mankind.Nemesis – an indomitable rival – Hercules’ nemesis was Queen Omphale of Lydia.6) The Dark Ages lasted from 500 to 1500 A.D. The Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. These terms were applied to the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations in Europe.7) In Europe during medieval times, the only recognized religion was Christianity, in the form of the Catholic religion. The lives of the medieval people were dominated by the church. Though the actual term “feudalism” was not used during medieval times, what we now recognize as a feudalist system of government was in control in Medieval Europe. Feudalism was a way for the Kings and upper nobility to keep control over the serfs and peasants. The economy was mostly based on Feudalism, but every so often kings would give local lords gifts of land in exchange for loyalty and maintenance of local civil order.8)