Advocacy Through LegislationIdentify a problem or concern in your state, community, or organization that has the capacity to be advocated through legislation. Research the issue andcomplete the sections below. For each topic that requires the listing of criteria, a minimum of two criteria should be identified and discussed. Add more rows as is appropriate for the topic/proposal.ProblemIn no more than 250 words, describe the problem, who is affected, and the current ramifications. Explain the consequences if the issue continues.The 2019 Health Value Dashboard ranks Ohio State 46 among the 49 states in the United States in relation to healthcare outcomes and spending. Some of the problems affecting the state include a high rate of smocking and drug-overdose deaths, misdirected healthcare resources, and health disparities that have contributed to the low rankings (Health Policy Institute of Ohio, 2020). Many Ohioans have been left behind in joining healthcare programs that aim at increasing access to healthcare services. Populations that have been affected include Ohioans with disabilities and ethnic minorities who live in rural areas. The state also spends many healthcare resources in downstream care to treat patients suffering from a wide range of diseases. This is attributed to few opportunities in preventive care to prevent the development of certain health care issues (Health Policy Institute of Ohio, 2020). The Health Policy Institute of Ohio’s Health Value Dashboard which is a tool to track Ohio’s progress towards health value indicates that Ohioans are less healthy despite spending more on healthcare than other states in the United States. Other key findings include access to healthcare services is not adequate due to social, economic, healthcare systems, and the physical environment (Viviano, 2020). Ohio’s spending per person in the Medicaid program for the elderly is also higher than the United States. If this problem continues, Ohio state will have poorer health outcomes and an unsustainable healthcare system due to the large number of individuals seeking secondary care (Viviano, 2020). Idea for Addressing SolutionIn no more than 250 words, outline your idea for addressing the issue and explain why legislation is the best course for advocacy.This problem can be effectively addressed through policies that govern Ohio’s spending on healthcare to focus on preventive care and address the current inequalities experienced in the state. Since the state has healthcare funding that is allocated to the state by the federal government, the only problem is on the spending that can be addressed by developing effective policies to guide the spending of healthcare resources (Viviano, 2020). This will enable the state to invest in preventive healthcare minimizing the high costs attributed to treating a large population for a wide range of diseases. With the elderly population implementing preventive interventions, this will reduce Medicaid spending which is 1.4 times the United States spending. This will also help address substance abuse which is a major challenge in the state that contributes to the high mortality rate in the state (Barsanti, Salmi, Bourgueil, Daponte, Pinzal, & Ménival, 2017). The health disparities will also be addressed by enhancing access to insurance schemes where the poor, minority, and the disabled can access quality healthcare services. Policies are important in guiding decision-making for healthcare stakeholders and healthcare leaders. This is because healthcare policies provide standardization in daily operational activities and clarity when addressing healthcare issues that are critical to the health of American citizens (Barsanti et al., 2017). Developing policies will help in setting an action plan of addressing the problem affecting Ohio state to achieve desired outcomes. Research the IssuePerform research and compile information for your idea. Present substantive evidence-based findings that support your idea for addressing the problem (studies, research, and reports). Include any similar legislation introduced or passed in other states.Evidence 1 The government has implemented various strategies and developed programs to address the continued growth in United States’ spending on healthcare. The government has also developed cost-containment policies to govern the unsustainable growth in healthcare expenditure (Barker & DeNisco, 2016). These laws are meant to streamline administrative functions in the health system and address health disparities between the rich and poor where the poor are unable to access preventive healthcare services leading to poor health outcomes in this population (Barker & DeNisco, 2016).Evidence 2 States have also developed initiatives to cut on healthcare spending such as pay for performance and value-based purchasing. Since healthcare financing is a role of the United States, it provides policies to govern the spending of these finances to a certain level (Chamorro, Hisnanick, & Georgetown University, 2017). The Medicare and Medicaid programs have been developed to provide insurance coverage to all American citizens in all states. This expands access to healthcare for low-income individuals where the government pays for half or more of the total costs incurred in accessing healthcare services to beneficiaries (Chamorro, Hisnanick, & Georgetown University, 2017). Stakeholder SupportDiscuss the stakeholders who would support the proposed idea and explain why they would be in support.Stakeholder(s) Supporting 1 Nurses and other healthcare providers will support the proposed idea since this will help in reducing the number of individuals seeking secondary care. This is because more opportunities will be developed to enhance preventive healthcare that will enhance the achievement of healthcare goals. Due to the nursing shortage across the nation, an increased number of patients seeking secondary care increases the workload on the available healthcare providers in the state (Grand Canyon University, 2018).Stakeholder(s) Supporting 2 The state government which is the major stakeholder in the healthcare sector will also support this idea. This is because the government funds a large percentage of healthcare institutions since it has a responsibility of ensuring that every American accesses quality healthcare services. The government will support any legislation that aims to guide healthcare spending since this is also a problem affecting other states creating a huge burden on the government (Grand Canyon University, 2018).Stakeholder OppositionDiscuss the stakeholders who would oppose the proposed idea. Explain why they would be in opposition and how you would prepare to debate or converse about these considerations.Stakeholder(s) Opposed 1 Pharmaceutical firms who sell drugs and other healthcare products may oppose this proposed idea due to their high sales to healthcare facilities in addressing the high number of patients seeking healthcare services from the facilities. This idea may negatively affect their profits through reduced sales. However, having a dialogue with them can inform them on the opportunities available in preventive care where they can also benefit through sales of drugs (Grand Canyon University, 2018).Stakeholder(s) Opposed 2 Private investors who have private facilities may oppose this idea since improving the health of all citizens reduces the number of patients seeking healthcare services. This may negatively affect these institutions through losses. However, there are also opportunities for them in preventive care where they can help patients in implementing preventive interventions to improve their health (Grand Canyon University, 2018).Financial Incentives/CostsIn no more than 250 words, summarize the financial impact for the issue and the idea (added costs, cost savings, increased revenue, etc.). Provided support.If this policy is approved, it will help Ohio state to streamline its healthcare system and administrative functions reducing the high costs of providing secondary care. In the provision of preventive care, few resources are needed since individuals are responsible for implementing most of the interventions (Stadhouders, Kruse, Tanke, Koolman, & Jeurissen, 2019). This minimizes the number of admissions where the available healthcare workers are able to effectively address the few patients seeking secondary healthcare services. This will save on costs as well as the achievement of healthcare goals by empowering nurses in their performance of various roles leading to employee satisfaction (Stadhouders et al., 2019). Satisfied employees maintain an optimal performance improving the achievement of healthcare goals. The saved funds can be used for other important processes such as strengthening the healthcare system and addressing healthcare disparities in the state. The state can integrate medical technology in most of the healthcare processes to improve their efficiency. With the state having a high rate of deaths due to tobacco use and drug-overdose, campaigns can be launched with these funds to help the state address this crisis that has led to the poor health outcomes within the state (Stadhouders et al., 2019).Legislature: Information Needed and Process for ProposalDiscuss the how to advocate for your proposal using legislation. Include the following:Provide the name and complete contact information for the legislator. Robert Portman37 West Broad Street, Room 300Columbus, Ohio 43215Phone: 614-469-6774Describe the steps for how you would present this to your legislator. I would make an appointment with the legislator to discuss this proposal.I would explain the reason for this proposal with support from the statistics that rank the Ohio state 46.I would also provide the benefits of this proposal to the healthcare sector, to Ohioans, and the state in achieving the healthcare goals.Outline the process if your legislator chooses to introduce your idea as a bill to congress. After the sponsor introduces a bill to congress, the sponsor tries to gain support from members of the congress by explaining the benefits of the bill to the target population (Grand Canyon University, 2018). The sponsor and co-sponsors introduce the bill when the House is in session where the first reading of the bill is done and then referred to a committee with a jurisdiction in healthcare. The committee debates on the bill making any necessary changes and then tables it to a subcommittee for comprehensive analysis (Grand Canyon University, 2018). The subcommittee studies the bill, makes necessary changes, and sends it back to the committee for approval. The committee then reports the bill and sends it to the House for consideration where members debate on the bill (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Following the debate, any amendments are made and the second reading is done. The bill is read a third time and then put on a vote where members in attendance vote ether to pass or not to pass the bill. If the bill passes, it is sent to the president for a signature where it becomes a law (Grand Canyon University, 2018).Christian Principles and Nursing AdvocacyIn no more than 250 words, discuss how principles of a Christian worldview lend support to legislative advocacy in health care without bias. Be specific as to how these principles help advocate for inclusiveness and positive health outcomes for all populations, including those more vulnerable, without regard to gender, sexual orientation, culture, race, religion/belief, etc. The principles of a Christian worldview lend support to legislative advocacy in healthcare without bias by supporting access to healthcare for poor families and ethnic minorities. This is because the Christian worldview believes that all humans are equal and should not be discriminated in accessing basic services such as healthcare (Proverbs 31:8-9). This principle will support advocacy for vulnerable populations without regard to factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, race, or culture. Men and women in key positions should help the weak to access important services by showing mercy and treating other individuals with dignity (Rieg, Newbanks, & Sprunger, 2018). This can be shown by legislators voting for bills that help in addressing health inequalities that prevent some populations from accessing healthcare services due to certain factors. Individuals should use what God has given to them to help other individuals who have a need (Rieg, Newbanks, & Sprunger, 2018). If legislators apply this principle, they will vote for laws that enhance access to healthcare services by all individuals improving the achievement of healthcare goals. Another Christian principle that can lend support to legislative advocacy in healthcare without bias is justice that requires individuals to treat one another as equals since all individuals are created in the image of God and no person is more special than the other is. Individuals should speak the truth regarding health disparities and other factors that may lead to discrimination where appropriate laws will be made to safeguard affected populations (Cuellar De la Cruz & Robinson, 2017). ReferencesBarker, A. M., & DeNisco, S. M. (2016). Advanced practice nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession (3rd Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. Barsanti, S., Salmi, L. R., Bourgueil, Y., Daponte, A., Pinzal, E., & Ménival, S. (2017). Strategies and governance to reduce health inequalities: evidences from a cross-European survey. Global health research and policy, 2, 18. doi:10.1186/s41256-017-0038-7Chamorro, A. M., Hisnanick, J. J., & Georgetown University. (2017). The effect of Medicaid expansion on health insurance coverage. Washington, DC: Georgetown University.Cuellar De la Cruz, Y., & Robinson, S. (2017). Answering the call to accessible quality health care for all using a new model of local community not-for-profit charity clinics: A return to Christ-centered care of the past. The Linacre quarterly, 84(1), 44–56. doi:10.1080/00243639.2016.1274631Grand Canyon University. (2018). Trends in Health Care: A Nursing Perspective. Grand Canyon University Health Policy Institute of Ohio. (2020). 2019 Health Value Dashboard. Retrieved from https://www.healthpolicyohio.org/2019-health-value-dashboard/Rieg, L. S., Newbanks, R. S., & Sprunger, R. (2018). Caring from a Christian Worldview: Exploring Nurses’ Source of Caring, Faith Practices, and View of Nursing. Journal of Christian Nursing, 35(3), 168–173.Stadhouders, N., Kruse, F., Tanke, M., Koolman, X., & Jeurissen, P. (2019). Effective healthcare cost-containment policies: A systematic review. Health Policy, 123(1), 71-79. doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.10.015Viviano, J. (2020, April 3). Report: Ohio still lags most states in health outcomes. The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from https://www.dispatch.com/news/20190403/report-ohio-still-lags-most-states-in-health-outcomes.