Alice Tolson 18/09/20198 child and young person development 1.1 (a) physical development- Newborn- having many reflexes like swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex and falling reflex. Baby at one month- Three months- lifting and turning their heads and interested in playing with fingers. Six months- exploring more with toys and objects in their mouths, sitting up with support and rolling over. Nine months- crawling or rolling, sitting up with no support, using fingers to feed. One years old- standing up and holding onto furniture, things being picked up and handled. 18 months- with support walking up and down stairs, able to feed self with spoon. Two years old- running and climbing, able to sit and ride toys.Two years and 6 months- pedalling a tricycle or pushing it with feet, turning pages in books and pointing at things.Three years old- able to walk up stairs on alternate foot, able to use toilet.Four years old- riding tricycles and climbing, good use of hands to do certain activities involving threading, pouring and using scissors.Five to six years old- able to kick and control ball, more legible handwriting and better movements.Seven to nine years old- precise and confident hand movements, good at balancing, running and throwing.Nine to eleven years old- skilled at drawing and colouring, skilled at throwing, kicking and using whole-body movements.Eleven to thirteen year olds- changes in body shape, increased strength and stamina.Thirteen and sixteen year olds- changes to body shape as a result of puberty, increase in strength and stamina.Sixteen to nine teen year olds- girls now fully developed, boys still growing until they reach 18 years or so, boys with higher stamina and strength. 1.1 (b) communication & intellectual development- Newborn- crying to communicate, Start to look around and react to sounds.One month old- familiar voices may stop them from crying.Three months- excitement when time to be fed, starting to notice objects.Six months- curiosity for what’s happening around them and babbling, laughing and squealing. Nine months- tuneful babbling, exploring objects with hands and mouth.One years old- waving, pointing at objects, tuneful babbling.18 months- less babbling and more recognisable words.Two years old- points to pictures of familiar people and objects and names them.Two years and six months- using lots of phrases where two words are used.Three years old- interest in mark marking, keen to help and copy adults. Four years old- asking questions and enjoy talking, concentration for activities they enjoy.Five to six years old- enjoyment of jokes, begin to decode some familiar words. Seven to nine years old- verbal arguments, persuasion and negotiation, reading books silently and writing short stories.Nine to eleven years old- problem solving, playing cooperatively, stories and writing that shows imagination.11-13 year olds- able to read and write fluently, begin to manage own time.13-16 year olds- high level of skills in some subjects.16-19 year olds- increased levels of intellectual maturity, growing confidence in communicating to adults.1.1 (c) social, emotional and behaviour development-Newborns- begin to develop a close bond with their main carer.One month old- stopping crying when picked up, starting to relax at bath time etc. Three months old- enjoyment at bath time, smiling back when being smiled at.Six months old- smiling when playing with their main carer, arm lifting to show they want picking up.Nine months old- wanting to stay by their carer.One years old- repetitive play, crying if carer can’t be seen.18 months old- sings of temper and frustration, interest in others.Two years old- delight and happiness when enjoying things, keen to show things to adults.Two years six months- playing alongside others and copying their actions, temper tantrums when frustrated.Three years old- keen to help and copy adults, interested in other play.Four years old- co-operative play with others, responding well to adult praise and recognition.Five to Six years old- keen to understand and use the rules, have friendships with others.Seven to nine years old- co-operative play with others forming friendships, understand rules and consequences.Nine to eleven years old- awareness of consequences, more stable friendships.11-13 years old- more confidence around home and familiar places, become more independent.13-16 years old- confidence and enjoyment with friends, thoughts and ideas different to their parents. 16-19 years old- low levels of self-esteem, responsible for their own behaviour.1.2 2.1 (a) All families are different, and each one will have their own traditions or beliefs. Some children don’t experience a lot of support at home, parents/carers may be too occupied all the time with work etc. and may use TVs or computers as a distraction for their children and therefore don’t spend a lot of quality time with their children causing them to lack confidence and fall behind in their development; especially affecting their emotional development. Children need interactions with adults and other children to learn social and language skills. With that being said there are parents that are too protective over their children and don’t trust their children to do things on their own and help them too much, those children can fall behind in the development of their motor skills; Simple tasks as getting dressed or climbing stairs may require help where as other children of the same age are already independent.2.1 (b) A child’s health is a very important factor in development. If a child has a disability it may be hard for them to keep up with the expected development. For example a child that is hearing impaired may learn to speak at a slower rate than others, this will make communication with others hard for them and therefore they will have problems to socialise with others. Some children may have been born with a condition which will automatically affect them such as a heart condition, if this is an ongoing condition which may cause triggers and make them unwell this will affect their development. This may restrict them from doing certain things or activities, making it harder for them to make friends affecting their emotional and social development as they may feel they are not ‘normal’. 2.1 (c) A child’s environment is important as this can have quite an affect on their development. Where a child grew up is key, for example if they lived in a high rise flat with no outdoor play space this will lack outdoor physical play, and having no access to parks or play areas because they are to far away this will lack social skills when playing with other children. School or nursery is an important part of a child’s life considering how much time they may spend there, but some are not as lucky as they may be in an environment that has limited resources or not a lot of room to play, this can affect their cognitive development as they are not experiencing new things.2.2 It is very important to recognise any concerns in a child’s development, responding to this identified concern with a child’s development in the correct manner is just as important as recognising them. No matter if it’s a big or small concern it always needs to be reported to an appropriate person, delaying this could have an impact on the child’s future development.