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REPORT ON THE TOPIC-INDIAN RURAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMSUBMITTED TO- DR.REBECCA WASONSUBMITTED BY-ANGELSTUDENT ID- 0733632CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONOVERVIEW-(INDIAN HEALTHCARE)Number of villages in India Percentage of population in villagesNumber of doctors and nursesDiseasesCHC/PHC/SCRURAL HEALTHProblemsImprovementDiseasesRural healthcare as a three-tier systemRECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTCONCLUSIONBIBLIOGRAPHYREFLECTIVE ESSAYINTRODUCTIONIndian healthcare is the responsibility of the state government rather than the central federal government asper the constitution of India . Ayushman Bharat an ambitious healthcare project launched in the year 2018 . The private sectors consists of 58% of the hospitals in the country, 29% of beds and 81% of doctors in hospitals. People below the poverty line get the free public healthcare . Due to increased resistance to drugs diseases such as dengue fever, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague. A request had been sent to policy makers by scholars to acknowledge the form of healthcare that many are using, as considering the goal of obtaining universal healthcare as part of sustainable development goals.40 million jobs have been expected to be generated by healthcare sector by 2030. To interchange India as a global healthcare hub is the aim of the Indian government. And for improving the immunisation system in the country , there is the creation of the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI). By the time approximately 1.4 million doctors are serving in Indian healthcare. But still Millennium development goals have not been reached by India. Till 2020 it is expected by Indian healthcare sector to reach $280 billion (US dollars ). Factors as contribution in growth will be hike in income level, rise in standard of living and good health awareness.INDIAN HEALTHCAREDespite the issuance of the guidelines by the central government , ‘health’ being a state subject, the final prerogative on implementations of the initiatives on new born care lies with the states. In determining the manner in which health services are delivered, utilized and affect outcomes ,healthcare systems and policies have a critical role .The Indian healthcare is growing at a brisk, pace due to its strengthening coverage , services and increasing expenditure by public as well as private . Healthcare comprises hospitals, medical devices , clinical trials , outsourcing ,telemedicine , medical tourism and medical equipment. The Indian healthcare delivery system is categorised into two major components – public and private .Majority of secondary, tertiary and quaternary care institutions with a major concentration in metros cities is being provided by the private sector .limited secondary and tertiary case institutions in key cities is comprised by the public healthcare system. The public healthcare system focuses on providing basic healthcare facilities in the form of primary healthcare centres (PHC’s) in rural areas.Number of villages in India -According to various government databases ,the number of villages in India is anywhere between 600,000 and one million . About 50,000 of the villages from the census are uninhabited. Through the process of forest reservation the state forest department classifies forest villages-settlements inside forest . Then there are un-surveyed villages that are not covering the forest census. A case in point is MGNREGA ,which treats a revenue village & its hamlets as distant entities, giving 45720072390000us a tally of over one million villages. Percentage of population in villages- According to the latest census, for the first time since independence the overall growth rate of population has sharply declined, and nearly 70% of the country’s population lives in rural areas. Although, there was a increase of 9 crore in the birth rate in rural areas of India in the last decade. The data also represents that Mumbai tops the list having the maximum number of people in urban areas at five crore whereas maximum number of people living in rural areas in a particular state is 15.5 crore in Uttar Pradesh.Number of doctors and nurses- From the data of the National Health Profile 2017, it has been showed that India has a little over one million modern medicine doctors to treat its 1.3 billion people . Sick people are examined by whoever is present in the absence of doctors, irrespective of their qualifications. As per the report bye the world health organisation India’s only one in the five doctors in rural India are qualified to practice medicine, highlighting the widespread problem of quackery. Before the parents brig their children to the hospitals they seek their baby medication from the local remedies and quacks doctors mostly get sick babies. Doctors can’t let anyone go from their hospitals without the proper treatment so there are two to three babies on one bed and two babies in one incubator.Diseases- In general, in rural India , the disease pattern in India has undergone a significant shift over the last 15 years .there was an evident in 2001-2003 that the government of India reported this change as the causes of death in the country . It has been represented by the data of the report that the deaths due to communicable diseases (41%) were almost matched by those due to NCDs (40%) in rural India. now in every one in five adults in rural India ,the biggest factor of death is high blood pressure ,globally. Ample of NCDs that do not lead to death but lead to significant disability are chronic low back pain, mental health, anaemia, cataracts and hearing loss. Some chronic diseases that may cause death as well as disability are coronary artery diseases, strokes , lung diseases and cancers. With a long term consequences , non- communicable diseases are rising at an alarming rate in rural India on people’s health and finances .CHC/PHC/SC- Numbers and differences—under the national rural health mission (NRHM) ,there is a three tired structure of healthcare in India’s village – sub -centers , primary health centres and community health centres. Sub-centres as being the forefront are covering 3,000 people in hills or tribal areas and 5,000 people in plains .Burden on both the secondary and tertiary health institutions will be decreased or these both will be eased by strengthening the both PHCs and sub centres. Difference table;Sub centre (SC) Primary health centre (PHC) Community health centre (CMC)Most peripheral point between primary health care system and community manned with one HW/ANM and one HW. A referral unit for six sub centres 4-6 bedded manned with a medical officer in-charge and fourteen sub-ordinate paramedical staff. A thirty bedded hospital/referral unit for four PHCs with specialised services.RURAL HEALTHNormally, tribal as well as rural people living in India have their own beliefs and thoughts regarding the health care. Some people are still in favour of Ayurveda, Unani and naturopathy to acquire a healthy living status.Problems- Because of a limited access to appropriate facilities majority of people are shifting towards private healthcare as their first preference rather than public healthcare.Improvement- Proper facilitation of health services at right venue must hike, women must be aware to get good health treatment. Diseases-Agricultural sector related injuries as well as problems are quite common such asSnake ,dog & insect bite, skin & respiratory diseases, socio- psychological problems of the female and adolescent population. With long term consequences on people’s health ,non- communicable diseases are hiking at alarming rate such as – chronic low back pain, mental health and hearing loss that may cause significant disability .workforce, pay returns and superstitions are the challenges faced by rural healthcare in India. Indian rural healthcare is a three-tier system:-Primary health care-As being a comprehensive approach it act as a first interface between village community & the medical officer.Sub centre-One of the peripheral outpost of Indian healthcare sub centre caters to the healthcare needs of 5000 population in general.Community Health Centres-These are non profitable organisations offering integrated healthcare and language. All the services provided are confidential, some are free or low cost charged for eligible individuals. Recommendations for improvement Both public and private sector have to join their hands to cope up with India’s rising healthcare needs. Some of the recommendations are:-Regulating distribution & sales of drug – free medications are provided by public pharmacies.Improve infrastructure- Basic facilities such as electricity, water supply, emergency units needs to be addressed.Telemedicine- By helping interventional planning it addresses two major challenges confronting health-care delivery in India.Community health workers- these are social and cultural intermediaries, engaging in the necessary actions to address the cultural & social barriers that lead to poor health.E-medicine- it is applicable for electronic health records, tele consultations, e- nursing , e- dissemination of personalised healthcare.CONCLUSIONThe mainstreaming of the public health agenda in the framework of sustainable development is the future of a healthy India. There must be an ultimate goal of the great nation , where the best of healthcare is available to all, where the government must be responsible as well as corruption free, where poverty together with illiteracy have been eradicated totally. One and only way to achieve the goal can be done community participation. Indian healthcare is lacking in resources of finance and material, its also acquiring health workforce issues as well as rural healthcare is facing the challenge to implement health equity policies in a pluralistic environment; rural healthcare must confront these important issues. As various of factors are influencing the outcomes of health so a strong partnership is needed to be made between ministry of health and other public health agents .REFERENCES:- ESSAYWrite about your experience in creating an analytical report what did you learn about research/writing/communication?In report writing , a proper collection of right content is required to be expressed in the proper research format. Data for the report must be acquired from latest news articles. A professional report must acquire proper sequence of headings and sub- headings from introduction till conclusion also including its references as well as bibliography. A report must start with appropriate content table. The report must not have the same copy -pasted sentences from the web rather they must have a changed form but in simple language . A report must not occupy any large amount of duplex data. A report must not possess any grammatical mistakes. It can contain pictorial representation of data . The data for a professional report must not be collected from Wikipedia ,Blogs and Quora. Short report is acceptable if having meaningful and realistic data rather than to impress the audience by lengthy & boring report. A well-organized report must be in a symmetrical order (like it must have same font and font size throughout the report. Report must not contain the possessions like ‘I’ and ‘You’.