Annonated Bibilography (1)

Moon, M. K., Yim, J., & Jeon, M. Y. (2018). The effect of a telephone-based self-management program led by nurses on self-care behavior, biological index forcardiac function, and depression in ambulatory heart failure patients. AsianNursing Research, 12(4), 251-257. doi:10.1016/j.anr.2018.10.001A quasi-experiment research was conducted by Moon et al. (2018), purposed to examine the outcomes of telephones self management program on self-care behaviour, cardiac functional index and depression of heart failure (HF) patients. Research gap was clearly indicated that previous studies focused on the effect of telephone-based program on the subjective index of HF patients but none on the objective index of cardiac function. A convenience sampling of thirty-eight heart failure outpatients of Gyeongsang National University Hospital was recruited and allocated into two groups. The intervention group received weekly face-to-face education and telephone consultation for consecutive 4 weeks. As for the control group, educational booklet and face-to-face education was conducted. Pre and post blood test were performed, and structured questionnaires were distributed. Data was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results revealed that the intervention group had significantly higher self-care behaviour score than the control group. Effects of telephone-based self management program also resulted in better weight control and cardiac function, additionally relieved depression in heart failure patients. Telephone access enabled the medical staff to have more rapid rapport with participants, hence the results were reliable. Researchers concluded that regular phone-based patient care and education is effective self-care management program. However the short period of this study was insufficient in evaluating the microscopic effects of the program, hence more longitudinal studies are suggested to be further conducted in assessing the long term effects of self-care program on heart failure outpatients. (238 words)Sagar, V. A., Davies, E. J., Briscoe, S., Coates, A. J. S., Dalal, H. M., Lough, F., …Taylor, R. S. (2015). Exercise-based rehabilitation for heart failure: Systematicreview and meta-analysis. Open Heart, 2, 1-12. Retrieved fromhttp://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/2/1/e000163.full.pdfA systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted by Sagar et al. (2015) to examine the efficacy of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and the effects of delivery modes of exercise CR on mortality, hospitalisation, morbidity and health-related quality of life of heart failure patients. Electronic databases include MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched up to January 2013. Total of thirty-three randomised control trials with 4740 heart failure participants were reviewed. The Cochrane risk of bias stool was utilized to assess the trial quality, and data were analyzed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Eleven trials showed greater improvement in quality of life in the exercise group than the non-exercise group. For those studies above 12 months follow up and using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, findings showed that exercise group clinically improved health-related quality of life. Meta analysis also showed that the types of exercise CR and trials characteristics did not affect the benefits of exercise CR. This Cochrane review concluded consistent improvements in hospital admission and health-related quality of life with exercise-based CR, however the details of research methods in few reviewed trials were poorly indicated and leads to reporting bias. Future studies are suggested to include the generalisability of trial populations and implementation of plans in enhancing the continuation of exercise-based CR programmes. (227 words)Deek, H., Chang, S., Newton, P. J., Noureddine, S., Inglis, S. C., Arab, G. A., . . .Davidson, P. M. (2017). An evaluation of involving family caregivers in theself-care of heart failure patients on hospital readmission: Randomisedcontrolled trial (the FAMILY study). International Journal of NursingStudies, 75, 101-111. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.07.015A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted by Deek et al. (2017) over 13-months period in three hospitals in Lebanon. Previous studies reflected the positive effects of family caregivers in managing patients with coronary artery disease but no evaluation on the involvement of the family in heart failure self-care. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the family caregivers’ involvement on the self-care of heart failure patients and the risk of re-hospitalisation. Total sample of 256 heart failure patients and their primary caregivers were included and consented prior to study. Participants were randomised into two groups. For the intervention group, self-care resources and family-centered educational session on self-care and symptom management were established for the participants and their caregivers on the day of their hospital discharge. For control group only received self-care resources without any educational session. Follow-up phone calls were conducted 30 days following discharge by research assistant. Results showed that the intervention group demonstrated a significant reduction in re-hospitalisation and greater improvement in self-care maintenance. Results also revealed that the intervention group had significantly fewer major vascular incidents and health care utilization than the control group. Deek et al. (2017) concluded that family-centred educational intervention is potentially reducing the rate of hospitalisation of heart failure patients. This study only focused on evaluating the first readmission within the 30 days period, hence future trials should include the frequency of readmissions and duration of hospitalisation in assessing the severity of conditions and the quality of hospital care provided. (256 words)Part BHeart failure is a clinical syndrome of dyspnea, fatigue, and peripheral oedema due to impaired myocardial function, progressively declining disease trajectory and unpredicted health events (Ponikowski et al., 2016). Based on case study, Charles presented with positive signs of exacerbated heart failure as stated above. The Cochrane systematic review and meta analysis by Sagar et al. (2015) aimed to reassess the effectiveness of exercise CR in managing heart failure patients. Two reviewers were involved in selecting the eligible RCTs and the trial quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, which minimises the risk of bias assessment (Higgins & Green, 2011). Systematic review is ranked the highest level in the hierarchy of evidence as they include all available evidence with conclusions based on rigorous critical appraisal (NHMRC, 2009). It is a method to “review existing literature on a particular question by identifying, appraising, selecting and synthesising all high quality research evidence relative to that question” (Jirojwong et al., 2013). Meta-analysis is also at the highest part of the pyramid because it is a cumulative analysis of several RCTs and finalise all findings into a single statistical analysis of results (Del et al., 2013). The Cochrane systematic reviews are recognised internationally as the gold standard in evidence-based care as this database contains both systematic reviews and review protocols (Walden University, 2019). From this review, exercise CR is an evidence-based practice and is able to improve the disease process in Charles’s case. Next article focused on evaluating the effects of involving family caregivers in the self-care of heart failure patients on hospital readmissions by implementing randomised controlled trial study (Deek et al., 2018) . NHMRC (2009) stated that randomised controlled trial is considered as level II evidence. RCT is the most rigorous study design to show causal relationship between independent and dependent variables.This research style is considered very reliable because the replication of a trial is possible and the study protocols have to be well defined and clearly described (Rose, 2013). Random allocation was done so that each study participant has an equal chance of being allocated in either intervention or control group and minimises the selection bias. Researchers also used the modified Arabic version self-care of heart failure index (A-SCHFI), which reported valid and reliable in assessing for multidimensional scales (Barbaranellie et al., 2014). SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) index was utilised in measuring the frailty of patients to evaluate the effect of intervention on the study outcomes. This index was tested and proved to have adequate construct and predictive validity (Romero-Ortuno et al., 2010). In Charles’s case, this article is evident in proving that family-centred educational intervention successfully improved the self-care of heart failure patients.The following article focused on quasi experimental study by Moon et al. (2018), evaluated on the effect of telephone-based self management program on self-care behaviour, biological index for cardiac function and depression in heart failure patients. Quasi-experimental research tests descriptive causal hypotheses about manipulated causes to support the counterfactual interfere. This research design is more feasible because if often does not have the time and logistical constraints associated with many true experimental designs (Campbell & Stanley, 2015). Inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria of sample were clearly indicated by researchers, hence reduces the sampling error. Cronbach’s alpha is an estimate of the reliability of measurement tools and also its internal consistency. A reliability coefficient of 0.70 or higher implies that the research tools are reliable (Streiner, 2003). Reliability of the translated European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour 9-item (EHFScB-9) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire in this study determined using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were 0.71 and 0.79. Hence, the findings of this article is reliable and representative to the larger population. Telephone-based self management program is recommended in Charles’s case which enables to manage and educate outpatients with heart failure. (634 words)Part CHeart failure (HF) is a global pandemic affecting estimated 26 million people worldwide, and the prevalence of people diagnosed with HF is projected to rise by 46% by 2030 (Savarese & Lund, 2017 ; Benjamin et al., 2017). Patient education is a crucial pedagogical approach for managing HF patients, especially outpatients have been hard to control regular and accurate drug administration, exercise and dietary. Telephone-based management has been proven to be an effective and accessible nursing implementation for outpatient nurses in providing continuous health education and optimal consultation for HF outpatients. Instead of self-care management, family caregivers also play a significant role on adoption and maintenance of health behaviours in HF patients. Hospitalized patients may be discharged having gained temporary symptomatic relief owing to pharmacotherapy, however the disease may worsen due to insufficient awareness of the change in symptoms and lack of self-care behaviour,leading to rehospitalization. Hence, family members can particularly effective in monitoring their daily dietary intake, medication adherence, physical activities and also identify the early signs of HF deterioration. These measures helps in gaining insight into self-care practices, reducing unnecessary re-hospitalisations, and improving overall functional health status. (188 words) ReferencesBenjamin, E. J., Blaha, M. J., Chiuve, S. E., Cushman, M., Das, S. R., Deo, R., … American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee (2017). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(10), e146–e603. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485Barbaranelli, C., Lee, C. S., Vellone, E., & Riegel, B. (2014). Dimensionality and reliability of the self-care of heart failure index scales: further evidence from confirmatory factor analysis.Research in nursing & health, 37(6), 524–537. doi:10.1002/nur.21623Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (2015). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Ravenio Books.Deek, H., Chang, S., Newton, P. J., Noureddine, S., Inglis, S. C., Arab, G. A., . . .Davidson, P. M. (2017). An evaluation of involving family caregivers in theself-care of heart failure patients on hospital readmission: Randomisedcontrolled trial (the FAMILY study). International Journal of NursingStudies, 75, 101-111. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.07.015Del Mar, C., Hoffmann, T. & Glasziou, P. (2013). Information needs, asking questions, and some basics of research studies. In T. Hoffmann, S. Bennett & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-Based Practice across the Health Professions. (2nd ed.). Chatswood, Sydney: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (eds). (2011). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved from http://handbook.cochrane.org.Fernandez, R., Johnson, M., & Griffiths, R. (2013). Undertaking a Systematic Review. Sydney: Oxford University Press.Moon, M. K., Yim, J., & Jeon, M. Y. (2018). The effect of a telephone-based self-management program led by nurses on self-care behavior, biological index forcardiac function, and depression in ambulatory heart failure patients. AsianNursing Research, 12(4), 251-257. doi:10.1016/j.anr.2018.10.001NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council). (2009). NHMRC levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/file/guidelines/stage_2_consultation_levels_and_ grades.pdfPonikowski, P., Voors, A. A., Anker, S. D., Bueno, H., Cleland, J. G., Coats, A. J., … Jessup, M. (2016). 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failureof the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC. European Journal of Heart Failure, 18, 891–975.Rose, M. (Ed.). (2013). Single-subject Experimental Designs in Health Research. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Romero-Ortuno, R., & Soraghan, C. (2014). A Frailty Instrument for primary care for those aged 75 years or more: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe,a longitudinal population-based cohort study (SHARE-FI75+). BMJ open, 4(12), e006645. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006645Sagar, V. A., Davies, E. J., Briscoe, S., Coates, A. J. S., Dalal, H. M., Lough, F., …Taylor, R. S. (2015). Exercise-based rehabilitation for heart failure: Systematicreview and meta-analysis. Open Heart, 2, 1-12. Retrieved fromhttp://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/2/1/e000163.full.pdfSavarese, G., & Lund, L. H. (2017). Global public health burden of heart failure. Cardiac Failure Review, 3, 7–11.Streiner, D.L. (2003). Starting at the beginning : An Introduction to Coefficient Alpha and Internal Consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80(1), 99-103Walden University. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice Research: Levels of Evidence Pyramid. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/healthevidence/evidencepy-ramid

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