Final Reflection PaperLubna Nageh Abu-ZeiadJordan University of Science and TechnologyApplication of Stress Theory in Practice130433Introduction Stress theory was established by “Hans Selye” in (1970), in order to describe the person response to any stimuli, Selye is known as the ‘father of stress research’, he was the first scientist to identify ‘stress’ as a signs and symptoms of disease. Hans Selye was born in 1907, he done hard studies to recognized stress and classification of steroid hormones in animal models then he try to translate and apply the result of his study into human life experience. “Behind every great man, woman” of this saying was struck with selye and Louise, she is the most person who effected and supported him , he was the third marriage to Seyles. He discover the Selye’s Syndrome which is known as ‘General Adaptation Syndrome’. Which divides the stress response into three stages: the alarm, the resistance and the stage of exhaustion. Selye focused on universal patient reactions to disease. His concept of stress impacted individuals and communities alike, in multiple fields as endocrinology, complementary medicine and social psychology. Stress theory is one of the major middle range theory that it ease of apply in actual practice, it contain limited number of concepts and propositions. Stress is a part of life, everyone feels stress at one time or another, between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom. The responding process to stress is constant, dynamic and is important to the individual’s well-being. The nurses are familiar with idea of stress, because the concept of stress is strongly connected to nursing, but in spite of this familiarity it is a complex term with several meaning and usage. The aim of this paper is to provide an evidence from the literature about the importance of the stress theory development, its component, and its usefulness to nursing followed by application of this theory on different areas of nursing. Selye defined several concept related to the stress theory firstly began with stress, he define stress as a reaction and response of human body to alterations in its normal balanced state that caused by the stressor (may be negative stress, or positive) (Beh.2012). Then he define adaptation as the alteration takes place as a result of the response to a stressor. Also, he define coping as a state of balance between biological, psychological, and social process. Then he define homeostasis as returning human body to the stable state and it followed by recovery state(Beh.2012). There were many studies done by many researchers that apply the stress theory in many areas in nursing. In 2001 a descriptive and analytical study apply stress theory was done in Belfast by Ulster Community and Hospitals Trust Brian. A random sample of 72 nurses using the Nurse Stress Index questionnaire. The purpose of study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and stress levels among nurses working in a children’s hospital and to identify the main causes of stress. Researchers founded that there is a negative relationship between stress and job satisfaction, they attributed the resources of stress were job factors (McGowan, B. (2001). Other study apply stress theory was cross-sectional study done in Indian (Germanisches National Museum), in 2014, it was done by multi researchers (one of them is David Fontana), in order to study the occupational stress among staff nurses and to find a degree of work- stress among the staff nurses, the researchers used predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire consist of 22 questions on qualified nurses. Then analysis data by using Chi-square test. The researchers found that there were a statistically significant association (P < 0.024) between department of posting and level of stress, 42% of nurses were suffering from moderate-to-severe stress. The nurses who felt that the job was not tiring were found to be less stressed ) David, 2014). Another study done in Tacoma in 2016, the study was done by Elin Bjorling from University of Washington Seattle and Narayan B Singh from Seattle Pacific University. The purpose of study was to explore temporal patterns of stress in adolescent girls with headache, by selecting 31 adolescent girls(the age of sample range between 14–18 ), they were randomly cued by electronic diaries 7 times per day over a 21-day period responding to momentary questions about level of headache, perceived stress and stress-related symptoms. The study results divided the stress for the three headache groups (were statistically different), showing increased stress in girls with more frequent headache. This evidence suggests that increased stress in girls with recurrent headache are likely a vulnerable population who may benefit from stress-reducing intervention (Elin.2016). Another study apply stress theory to provide effective guide- line for understand the experiences of military families and develop appropriate treatment plans for family therapy was application of family stress theory to clinical work with military families and other vulnerable populations which was done by Kathrine Sullivan in 2014. The researcher found that there was association between deployment experiences and adverse consequences among military families in terms of individual and family functioning (Sullivan, K. (2015). Next study apply Selye stress theory to talked about suicide risk in Trans populations, it was done by Tebbe, Elliot A. Moradi, Bonnie in 2016, dispersion was tested in relation with some stressors, social support, drug and alcohol use were examined as direct correlates of suicide risk . Participants were 335 Tran’s individuals, with different gender identities, they were recruited using online social networks and they completed the study survey online via Qualtrics. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relations. The findings point to minority stressors, friend support, and drug use as potentially fruitful targets of prevention and intervention efforts to reduce depression and suicide risk in Tran’s populations (Tebbe, E. A., & Moradi, B. 2016). Other study is done by Mark Le Fevre and Jonathan Matheny, Gregory S. Kolt in New Zealand, in 2003 it was about Eustress, distress, and interpretation in occupational stress. The researchers conclusion that some stress is good and enhances performance should be rejected in favour of more useful and accurate concepts( Mark Le Fevre, Jonathan Matheny, Gregory S. Kolt. 2003). After seven years a cohort study was done by Ulrik Deding and Mads Ravn Grabas in 2010 in northern Jutland, Denmark, to identify stress perception as risk factor for peptic ulcer by using perceive stress scale for 121 peptic ulcer patients. The researchers concluded that the highest level of everyday life stress raised the risk of receiving triple treatment or diagnosed with peptic ulcer compared with the of lowest level of precede stress. So that there a significant relation between stress and peptic ulcer (Deding, U., Ejlskov, L., Grabas, M. P. K., 2010). Also before one year ago there was a study investigates the nature of the relationship between social stress and family violence. And it was done by Keith Farrington in 2017 in American family. Title by the application of stress theory to the study of family violence: Principles, problems, and prospects. Using model of stress. The study finding was the presence of relation between social stress and the incidence of violence is raised. (Straus, M. A. (2017)) Finally in the prior year the a cross-sectional study done by Abiodun M.and Erhabor S, in Nigeria and South Africa in 2017 apply stress theory to identify the role of emotional intelligence and organizational support on work stress of nurses, by assign 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses by distributed questionnaires to convenience sample. Data were analyzed with the use of correlational matrix and hierarchical multiple regression. The researchers found that use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress (Abiodun, 2017).Summary This paper show the significant of stress theory to apply to different areas of nursing profession; it can be applied to nursing practice, education, research and administration, although this theory had some limitation. Selye assumed that the physiological effects are very similar regardless of the stressor. In the fact , the stress response often various depending on the type of stressor.Implication The stress theory is learned in university and schools as curriculum. Stress in modest amount can be helpful to learning by increasing awareness and being a necessary push to accomplish a task . However , an excessive amount of stress and anxiety can have detrimental effect on learning. In nursing failed can use stress theory in primary health care to prevent disease occurs, and in palliative and chronic care units to adaptive with long period disease. In my perception the using of stress theory helping us to understand the role of the stress factor in disease, it enable us to adjust our therapeutic measures accordingly. At the end of this paper we found that the concepts were clearly defined in this theory, Selye theory was focus on physiological approaches and the metapargdaim (person, health, nursing and environment ) not always been defined explicitly. Finally in my view I can say that Hans Selye theory is generalize and useful and applicable in most part of life but there is some limitation because he was a doctor and did not mention the topics that are special to nursing.ReferencesAnisman, H. (2015). Stress and your health: From vulnerability to resilience. John Wiley & Sons.Beh, L. S., & Loo, L. H. (2012). Job stress and coping mechanisms among nursing staff in public health services. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(7), 131.Björling, E. A., & Singh, N. (2017). Exploring temporal patterns of stress in adolescent girls with headache. Stress and Health, 33(1), 69-79.Deding, U., Ejlskov, L., Grabas, M. P. K., Nielsen, B. J., Torp-Pedersen, C., & Bøggild, H. (2016). Perceived stress as a risk factor for peptic ulcers: a register-based cohort study. BMC gastroenterology, 16(1), 140.Hans Selye (1907–1982): Founder of the stress theory https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915631/Mark Le Fevre, Jonathan Matheny, Gregory S. Kolt, (2003) “Eustress, distress, and interpretation in occupational stress”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 18 Issue: 7, pp.726-744, https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940310502412.McGowan, B. (2001). Self-reported stress and its effects on nurses. Nursing Standard (through 2013), 15(42), 33.Nikolaou, I., & Tsaousis, I. (2002). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its effects on occupational stress and organizational commitment. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4), 327-342.Pargament, K. I. (2001). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. Guilford Press.Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life.Sharma, P., Davey, A., Davey, S., Shukla, A., Shrivastava, K., & Bansal, R. (2014). Occupational stress among staff nurses: Controlling the risk to health. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 18(2), 52.Straus, M. A. (2017). Social stress and marital violence in a national sample of American families. In Physical violence in American families (pp. 181-202). Routledge.Sullivan, K. (2015). An application of family stress theory to clinical work with militaryfamilies and other vulnerable populations. Clinical Social Work Journal, 43(1), 89-97.Tebbe, E. A., & Moradi, B. (2016). Suicide risk in Trans populations: An application of minority stress theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(5), 520.
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