CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONThis chapter includes the background of the study the statement of

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONThis chapter includes the background of the study, the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope, and limitations, and the definition of terms.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY It has long been recognized that Indigenous people experience relatively high exposure to risk factors that are strongly associated with a variety of chronic, preventable and non-communicable diseases (Hunter and Taylor, 2004). The right to health is contained in a broad range of international declarations, covenants and human rights instruments, from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the World Health Organization’s constitution and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to, more recently, the UNDRIP (Jansen, 2016). Mountain regions cover 27% of the earth’s land surface (Ebi et al 2007), accommodate 10% of the global population, contain half the world’s biodiversity hotspots, are rich in global heritage and culture, and provide a source of fresh water for half the world’s population (Kohler et al 2010). However, the levels of sanitation and water administrations scope as an addition to health achievement are also low among indigenous people groups. Moreover, in numerous parts of the less developed world, it is women and girls who are relied upon to give water to their family. Much of the time, young girls can’t finish school or land positions in the work field since water shortage implies they are compelled to walk miles day by day to get this most essential need. There are as yet numerous locales where water shortage and sexual orientation disparity bar ladies from tutoring and the workforce. Though some indigenous communities have health services or small hospitals, their geography or location is also considered as a reason to why the health of the indigenous people is at risk. Mountain regions are also home to many indigenous people whose livelihoods depend on mountain ecosystem services such as water, forests, agriculture, and medicinal plants (Hunzai et al 2011). Since most minorities are living in the highlands and remote areas; their areas are hard to reach thus the community does not have access to the health care they need. Also, consequently, Indigenous groups are the ones enormously influenced by water shortage since they stay far from the city. Thus, groundwater shortage can likewise be one of the key factors that can restrict comprehensiveness and strengthening of women and that should be considered in policy making. Health risk factors are usually associated with a person’s lifestyle. However, health as a major problem for the indigenous communities is not entirely caused by their lifestyle. Health problems in indigenous communities can also be caused by poverty. The incidence of poverty is higher in the mountains than in the plains in the same regions (Hunzai et al 2011). Malnutrition, for example, is caused by poor diet. It is usually the main health problem of the indigenous communities. But due to the lack of funds, the people won’t be able to address the disease properly and in time could lead to other different health problems such as osteoporosis, dental caries, gall bladder disease, nutritional anemia, digestive tract disorders, and diet-related cancers. Transferring irrigation management to water users’ associations is considered essential for improving canal management. Those, particularly NGOs committed to gender priority would like women to be brought in the ‘mainstream’ of irrigation management by encouraging them to participate actively in the affairs of water users’ associations (Shah, 2002). Thus, the study focuses on indigenous individuals particularly the women. This study will center around health and water and how those two influence the lives of the women in the indigenous society. Globally, indigenous people groups experience the ill effects of poorer health, and are more likely to suffer inability, and decreased personal satisfaction and eventually die younger than the non-indigenous counterpart.The levels of sanitation and water administrations scope as an addition to health achievement are also low among indigenous people groups. In numerous parts of the less developed world, it is women and girls who are relied upon to give water to their family. Much of the time, young girls can’t finish school or land positions in the work field since water shortage implies they are compelled to walk miles day by day to get this most essential need. There are as yet numerous locales where water shortage and sexual orientation disparity bar ladies from tutoring and the workforce. Consequently, Indigenous groups are the ones enormously influenced by water shortage since they stay far from the city. Globally, indigenous people groups experience the ill effects of poorer health, and are more likely to suffer inability, and decreased personal satisfaction and eventually die younger than the non-indigenous counterpart. Indigenous women encounter medical issues with specific severity, as they are excessively influenced by cataclysmic events and outfitted clashes, and are regularly denied access to education, land property, and other monetary assets. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The United Nations (2014) has estimated that there are approximately 370 million indigenous peoples in the world, living across all regions in at least 70 countries. Health has always been one of the major problems faced by different aboriginal communities not just in the Philippines but also in the region of Southeast Asia. The United Nations also added that an unfortunate commonality across much of the world’s indigenous peoples is persisting inequities in health status in comparison to non-indigenous populations. Our own “war on terrorism”” has exposed

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