Cognitive DevelopmentCognitive Development concerns the way we process thoughts and how we understand the world around us, predominately through the development of language and learning. It involves the development of the mind, in regards of understanding, knowing, reasoning, recognising, decision making and making light of what is viewed through senses.Ronnie’s cognitive development has not been able to develop, as it should. The cause of this could be his mother dying when he was young and his father leaving him. The effect of not having the recognition of his mother and father around at a young age, means he hasn’t had a significant person around, who he can relate to and who could comfort him. Not having a caregiver around to stimulate him and teach him language at an early age, could have caused Ronnie to fall behind at school and could effectively be the reason for him not gaining any qualifications. In order to thrive intellectually, we need to be nurtured by our parents and have an enriched environment for our brain to develop to its full potential. Also, due to being born to a drug-using mother, this could have affected him cognitively throughout his life. During adolescence Ronnie’s involvement in crime and drugs continued to adulthood, the cause of this could be he didn’t have the ability to understand the impact this would have on his future. This affected him during his life and resulted in him being regularly in jail. Typically, at Ronnie’s age he should be in fulltime employment. Due to his unsettled start and the decisions he has made in life, this has had a negative impact on his ability to succeed. Emotional DevelopmentEmotional Development concerns the ability to recognise, express and manage feelings at different stages of life and to have empathy for the feelings of others. The development of these emotions, which include both positive and negative emotions, is largely affected by relationships with parents, siblings and peers.Ronnie’s emotional development hasn’t progressed as it should. Not having a consistent caregiver during his early years, has meant he has not been able to thrive and develop emotional stability. This could be the factor that impacted his unmanageable behaviour and anger. Not feeling included at school and resenting the happy family life of his peers, could be due to him being deprived of love and closeness of a caregiver and not being able to bond and form a close attachment to an adult figure, this would have caused him to not trust others or develop a satisfactory self-concept. Being deprived emotionally can be related to slow intellectual development and your physical health can also be affected. Growing up in residential care Ronnie would have not had the attention and stimulation a loving family could provide, therefore his learning and the way he responds to others would have been restricted. Typically, Ronnie should be in a romantic relationship, at this stage in his life and have children. Due to the situation in which he was brought up in and his quality of life, not having the ability to express his feelings and emotions, will have had an impact on connecting emotionally to someone.BPhysical NeedPhysical needs include food, air, water, shelter, sleep and physical movement. Physical needs contribute to the health and well-being of our body. Due to taking Intravenous drugs regularly Ronnie has developed deep vein thrombosis, having this condition it is recommended to have a healthy diet and comfortable living conditions, in order to manage it and see any improvements. As Ronnie has been living on the streets for the last 2 months, he hasn’t been able to provide a comfortable environment for himself in which to get better, so his physical needs are not being met. Therefore, in order to get the care, he needs and stabilise his condition. Ronnie would be better cared for in a hospital, where he can continue his Heparin therapy to help treat his deep vein thrombosis and help to improve his physical health and well-being. Being in hospital will provide Ronnie with shelter, give him a better night sleep and he will be provided with food and water.Social NeedSocial needs include love, belonging, acceptance and safety. Satisfaction of these needs is important in order to feel supported and accepted. Having one’s social needs met also helps prevent problems such as loneliness, depression and anxiety. Social needs are met by forging relationships with other people.Ronnie social needs are not being met, he is not coping with everyday life. Not having anyone to encourage him and support him currently, has affected his ability to deal with the responsibilities we face in day to day life. Interacting and forming relationships with other people, can help us cope with depressing situations and help us find inner strength to cope and get through difficult times. As Ronnie doesn’t have any close friends and family, not having that love and belonging we all require in order to move forward in life, has prevented Ronnie from having any motivation and this can be due to feeling depressed and lonely. Due to Ronnie being homeless and a drug-user, he may experience social isolation, deprivation and stigma in social situations, and this will be having a detrimental effect on his mental health. For Ronnie’s social needs to be met, he would be best cared for in a drug rehabilitation centre, where he will have a range of professionals to support his needs and have much needed social interaction, with people in a similar situation to himself.Cognitive NeedCognitive needs refer to the desire to know, understand and solve problemsCLothian and Edinburgh Abstinence Programme is a free drug rehabilitation care service, which offers a three-month, quasi-residential treatment programme for people with alcohol and drug dependency. Ronnie would benefit from this programme, as it will help him battle his drug addiction and provide a safe place for him to live, while doing so. Health and social care standards have five principles, which will insure Ronnie receives the best outcome, when using this health care service. One of these principles are dignity and respect, Ronnie should be valued and accepted despite his background of drug abuse. The nursing and medical team within this care service, will ensure there is a personalised care plan formed, to enable Ronnie to overcome his barrier’s and help him recover from his addiction. Abiding by legislation such as the Equality Act 2010, ensures Ronnie will not be discriminated against despite his background of drug abuse and is provided with a positive care service to suit his needs. Discrimination is when you are treated differently and with prejudice because of who you are. Health care professions such as nurses and volunteers within this care service will need to register with the protecting vulnerable adults scheme (PVG). The advantages of this scheme is it ensures vulnerable adults such as Ronnie are protected and are in the care of confidence dependable adults, who do not have a history of causing harm to people. It is also necessary for nurses to be registered with a regulatory body, which for nurses is the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). The NMC is there to protect the public and ensure nurses are fit to practice and deliver the highest standards of care. If a nurse is working and is not on the relevant part of the register, it is against the law and they cannot work in that role until they have reregistered. Not being registered on the NMC would put Ronnie at risk and the nurse would not be covered if malpractice occurred.North East Recovery Hub Leith is a drop in centre which offers drug and alcohol treatment and support services. It is run by the NHS, a team of voluntary sector and social work staff. Ronnie would benefit from this service, as it offers a recovery plan and continued support, which would prevent him from falling back into his pattern of addiction after he has completed his rehabilitation programme. An advantage of this service is that it is confidential and they manage privacy by adhering to legalisation such as the Data Protection Act 2018, this would ensure if Ronnie was to bring someone along with him, he would have to give permission for any of his information to be shared. A disadvantage would be if the team were concerned Ronnie was at risk of being harmed, in this case his information would be shared with the appropriate professionals, following a risk assessment, which would then be out of Ronnie’s control. Social workers within this service will need to be registered with a regulatory body, which for Scotland is The Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC), they protect vulnerable people like Ronnie and would ensure him the service he receives would be provided by a confident, trusted and skilled workforce. The SSSC Codes of Practice set standards and behaviour for social workers to follow to ensure the public are aware what is expected from them. If a social worker did not meet the standards of the codes of practice expected of them, Ronnie could complain and they would be investigated by the SSSC fitness to practice process to assess whether they are fit to practice or not. The advantage of this would be it ensures Ronnie knows what to expect from the registered worker who is supporting him and will give him confidence that any care received will be of the best quality. The SSSC offer online learning zone for social workers, this ensures the knowledge and skills of the care provider are always up to date and relevant to the person the are providing care for. The strengths of this would be the care provider would have up to date knowledge of adult support and protection polices and procedures. The weakness would be if the care provider did not update their skills on a regular basis, they may miss vital signs and symptoms of hard and abuse.DSocial influences are where an individual’s thoughts, actions and reactions are influenced by groups or another person. Primary socialisation is the first way babies interact with people, the agents are our caregivers, normally our parents or grandparents. Family influence us the most, as we spend most of our time with them, they influence the way we speak, how we develop and values we accustom. Socialisation occurs when others show the person how to behave. We can learn these behaviours by being taught them from caregivers or by observing them. As Ronnie’s mother was a drug user and he was in her care in the early years of his life, he would have been around drugs from a young age, through observing this Ronnie was influenced to do this and would explain why he himself became a drug addict. Not learning any values early in life directly from our parents, could be the reason Ronnie had such disruptive behaviour, which would lead to him fighting in school as he was growing up and going to jail for violence when he became an adult. An agent of secondary socialisation is our peers, our peers are a social group of people, who we see to have a resemblance to ourselves. As Ronnie’s mother died, his father left him and his grandmother could not cope with him anymore, he may have had a better connection with friends than his family. Ronnie struggled with fitting in at primary school and felt different to his peers, who had loving families. Therefore when faced with high school Ronnie would have wanted to impress his peers and more likely to conform to their disruptive behaviour in order to fit into a group, which would not have been difficult, as he had displayed that type of behaviour throughout his life, up until that point. As Ronnie was in residential care, he would not have received discipline in a way a family would discipline their child, so doing wrong became a normal way of life for him. If Ronnie would have been brought up in a foster family, he would have had a family he could have connected to and who would have changed his attitudes and brought him up to respect others. Then he wouldn’t have had to seek a replacement connection from peers with behaviour problems at school.Another agent of secondary socialisation is media, media has a huge impact on groups and individuals in todays society. The internet is easily assessable and people spend a lot of time accessing social media, which in some way can be good for accessing information and maintaining social connections and support networks. But if usage is not monitored, violent content can be easily assessed and people can be influenced to think that behaviour is normal. Also cyber bulling can occur over social media and it can lead to feeling suicidal and depression. As Ronnie grew up in residential care, he wouldn’t have had a normal family life with a routine of visiting other family members, chores, family activities, holidays and there would not have been someone there to limit his online use. Without a caring environment he would have had a lot of extra time to access violent footage or be abusive towards people and in turn could also be the target for bulling, which would lower his self-esteem. Having a lot of access to social media could have affected Ronnie’s perception of substance use and felt more pressure to use drugs, more access to information and connections, would have made it easier to get drugs and become friendly with groups who would supply him them.EFunctionalist theory looks at society from at large scale perspective. It is a system based on ideas by Emile Durkheim, which examines the necessary structures that makes up society and how each part helps to keep the society stable and functioning. An example would be the economy, we work and pay our taxes, which go to the government, which they then put into the NHS for our medical care, this then helps us if we become ill. Social problems arise if a part of the system fails to work, which affects other area and leads to social change. Consensus means that everyone within the society are in agreement of how it should operate, this agreement depends on a shared understanding of norms, values and roles. If a family member were in an accident, which left them disabled and they had family who could support them, they would be better cared for at home. The NHS would provide them with a wheelchair, disability equipment, hoists and the local council could assess your home and have it adapted to make life easier. A community nurse could help support the family and give any medication which is needed. Having familiar surroundings would make the family member feel more secure and at ease. Taking care of their family member means the family are fulfilling their role, as the functionalist theory proposes.Conflict Theory which like functionalism also looks at society as a structured whole from a macro approach and also that different parts of society are interconnected and interdependent. However it highlights that society operates through conflict and constant strain, which allows constant change. As stated by Karl Marx society is split into two groups, the rich and the poor, which means wealthier groups in society have more power and benefits over people with a more poorer background. An example would be that people who are more financially stable, could afford private medical care, which would allow them to receive operations or any medical help straight away, whereas people in financial hardship would have to wait on the NHS waiting list and have long waiting times for beds and appointments. Families with less income wouldn’t be able to afford specialised treatment if it not available on the NHS. Living in poverty and not being able to access health care when you require it, increases your risk of poor health. In relation to the brief an individual requiring care for stage 4 liver cancer would be best cared for at home, they would be able to access palliative care when required, with assistance from a social worker to pick up any medication which is needed. Being at home they will be more independent and feel more comfortable within their surroundings. Individuals who are wealthier, might have been able to access more advanced treatment for liver cancer before it got to that stage, through their private health care, which would be of huge benefit to their health, while unfortunately the lower class don’t have this option. This highlights power differentials which happens between different classes in society.Symbolic Interaction, which was formulated by Herbert Blumer (1969). In contrast to functionalist and conflict theories, which look at society from a large scale. Symbolic interaction is a micro approach that looks at how individuals see society, through social interaction and also how society verses us as individuals. It looks at influences of society and how we assign meanings to things, but that meaning and aspect of society can change. In the case of an individual being cared for at home, they may feel comfortable in their own personal environment, with familiar surrounds and personal items, a past experience may have influenced their opinion of hospitals and they may associate uniforms with that experience. If a doctor were to visit the home they wouldn’t wear a uniform, which would make them feel more at ease and this would benefit them psychologically and allow a health professional to approach their care more holistically. Being cared for at home can depend on your geographical location, if an individual lives outside Edinburgh and needs a syringe driver for their medication to be administered, it wouldn’t be possible for them to be cared for at home, but if they live in Edinburgh it would be possible as they have palliative care. Geography can determine if you are cared for at home and this can also be dictated by society.FGIn conclusion there is no definitive answer whether it is always better to be cared for at home. Individually every person and their situation is unique, which implies what works for one person, may not work for another. In the case study I have used, the individual is better cared for in an environment of care, on the contrary it is specific to their particular situation and it isn’t always viable that a person is better cared for in a care environment as opposed to being cared for at home.