College Outcome 1 Assessment

Table of Contents

Outcome 1 – AssessmentIntroduction to the Health Sector The National Health Service was established after the second world war in 1948. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) is one of fourteen regional NHS Boards in Scotland providing strategic leadership and performance management for the full NHS system in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde region to ensure effective and efficient delivery of services. The NHS is also responsible for managing a wide range of health services, including hospitals and General Practice, working alongside partner organisations including Local Authorities and the voluntary sector. The NHSGGC serves a population of 1.14million and approximately 39,000 employees. Training each generation in a variety of important careers such as nurses, midwives, psychologists, doctors, and pharmacists. In Scotland, the NHS has an Annual budget of £3.1billion. Although this seems like a lot the NHS is always dealing with cuts and related issues which increases waiting times and makes it more difficult to make appointments. It doesn’t help that the usage of the NHS is growing rapidly and is being misused daily. In Scotland, the NHS is free apart from the dental and optical care. Prescriptions do not cost anything however; standard charges are in place in England. This shows how different services can change factors to the health service in certain parts of the United Kingdom. Primary CareReceptionist Receptionists are usually the first-person patients and relatives see. The receptionist is the NHS’s first line of defence and is in the primary care provision. They use customer service and admin skills to welcome people into various health services like the hospital, health centre or clinic. Receptionists also work with other health services such as clerks, health records staff and other admin staff. Receptionists in a specialised clinic or health centre may also work with podiatrists, occupational therapists, and physiotherapists. Management, administrative and support services The receptionist will usually be stationed at the front of the hospital entrance to direct patients and relatives to the correct ward or room. Many patients and their relatives can be nervous or upset when visiting a hospital or clinic, so the receptionist has the job of putting people at ease and reassuring them. While receptionists are best known for dealing with patients and family members face-to-face receptionists also book appointments by phone, answer phones and often make direct calls to other staff through the switchboard and telephone network. Some receptionists also combine the job with other admin duties such as filing, chasing up reports, photocopying and inputting data into the computer. General Practitioner (GP) A general practitioner is a doctor that treats a large variety of acute and chronic conditions. They are usually local to your area and in most cases, the same GP will treat your whole family. However, at my local doctors’ surgery called the Regent Gardens Medical Centre, you’re giving any doctor unless you request a specific one. The General Practitioner’s offer multiple essential services to patients. Some main ones would include giving out prescriptions, vaccinations, advice on health issues, treatments, referral to other health services and examinations. Care and treatmentA major role of the general practitioner is to give free vaccines to all ages ranging from less than one year of age to 70 years of age. Vaccines are also provided to health workers, pregnant women, people with health conditions and travellers. Vaccination is a procedure that gives a person the ability to produce and improve immunity against a particular disease by helping them create antibodies to fight the disease, but also protects us from getting the disease. This means that if the person was to come into contact with someone who had the disease, their body would be capable of producing antibodies to fight it. Vaccines do not, however, offer 100% protection against disease. Many vaccinations have a very high chance of protection, and others do not have such a high chance of protection. Fortunately, most of the vaccines given to patients are usually effective and have a reasonably high probability of protection. Although many people fear vaccines, they are very effective, safe and have been checked and tracked carefully, as some side effects may be rare and difficult to spot.Secondary CareNurse Practitioner A nurse practitioner is an experienced registered nurse who has decided to take a further course of nursing, training and working in the secondary provision. In medical clinics across the UK, nurse practitioners provide a number of services that were previously only allowed to be provided by general practitioner doctors. Nurse practitioners are qualified to see patients with undifferentiated and undiagnosed medical issues and have the ability to carry out an in-depth evaluation of their health care needs based on their medical and nursing knowledge like clinical skills such as history taking, physical examination, diagnosis, and prescribing of medications. Nurse practitioners may refer patients to medical specialists such as hospital consultants. Nurse practitioners may perform many procedures, including lumbar punctures and bone marrow biopsies. They are also considered a specialist nurse in the UK that can function with or without doctor supervision helping a patient to receive the care they need more quickly. Diagnosis There is very little that a nurse practitioner is not allowed to do in accordance with the law. They can examine a patient, make a diagnosis and provide care, just like a doctor. For example, a person with signs of a long-term condition such as asthma can be thoroughly examined by taking an appropriate history and an examination of their chest. After the results, a decision is taken on the severity of the condition. Appropriate medicine will be prescribed depending on the severity and risk assessment. The patient may then be treated at home, depending on the reaction to the response to the treatment with re re-evaluation or referred on. The nurse practitioner will also spend time working with the patient to understand what has happened and how to prevent it from happening in the future. Not only does this benefits the patient but also prevents an unnecessary referral to a GP. Midwife Midwives are one of the roles that prepare women for the delivery of a child during all stages of pregnancy, labour and the early postnatal period. If complications arise, you would be referred by a midwife to a doctor who is trained to deal with special situations. There are two main types of midwives; Hospital midwives and community midwives. Hospital midwives are based in a hospital obstetric or consultant unit, a birth centre or midwife-led unit and they staff the antenatal clinic, labour ward, and postnatal wards. Community midwives also work in teams and work in the community, for example in GP surgeries and health centres. They will visit women at home, usually for 10 days after they have given birth but sometimes this can be up to 28 days. There are many personal qualities and skills needed to be a midwife, such as a supportive and caring attitude, willingness to get along with people from a wide range of backgrounds, emotional and mental strength, good observation, flexibility, maturity, commitment, ability to cope with distressing circumstances and to remain calm in stressful situations, as well as general listening and communication skills.Care and treatment Midwives are closely involved in the women’s pregnancy care. Midwives give general advice on staying healthy, monitor the health of both mother and baby, check the baby’s position and development, book tests and scans, help prepare the women for labour by providing information and advice, provide breast-feeding education and support, assist with the birth of your baby and call for medical assistance if necessary. A midwife also offers emotional support during and after childbirth as many mothers’ deal with mental health problems. After birth the task of a midwife is to provide advice on how best to take care of your new-born. Community midwives see patients at home or at a clinic. When you go into labour, they’re available for home birth, or they might come to the labour ward in the hospital to be with you. When your child is born, they will visit you at home for 10 up to 28 days to ensure your safety and well-being. Life Sciences IndustryBiomedical Scientist A biomedical scientist is a scientist who is trained in biology, especially in medicine. Biomedical scientists are working at the cutting edge of science and medicine to find new ways to prevent or treat diseases and conditions by developing improved diagnostic tools and new therapeutic approaches. They also monitor the effects of drugs and other treatments Biomedical scientists are important to NHS as operating theatres accident and emergency departments and other hospital departments would not operate without them. Research and development Biomedical scientists play a major role in screening for diseases while also carrying out laboratory and scientific tests. Their main tasks are researching screening, causes and effects of diseases, investigate chemicals, finding treatments, Test biological samples, analysis of data and statistics, Work with high-tech laboratory equipment, writing medical research reports and working with hospital and GP staff to provide knowledge on patient samples. They study a range of medical conditions like cancer, diabetes, blood disorders, Hepatitis and AIDS. Biomedical scientists develop new treatments and therapies for human illnesses, diseases and disabilities. Biomedical scientists tend to specialise in one of four areas: infection sciences, blood sciences, cellular sciences or genetics and molecular pathology. Infection science involves study and identification of disease-causing micro-organisms, finding medication for them and virology – detecting viruses, related diseases, and testing the effectiveness of vaccines. Blood sciences include analysing body fluids and toxicology studies, determining blood compatibility, haematology – form and functions of blood and related disease and immunology- understanding the immune system. Cellular sciences include histopathology which is microscopic examination of diseased tissues as well as cytology – cervical smear screening. Genetics and molecular pathology include the study of genes and hereditary gene variations and molecular pathology – the research and diagnosis of disease by tissue and fluid analysis. Prosthetists and orthotics Prosthetists and orthotics are responsible for evaluating, diagnosing and managing the entire body. Prosthetists provide an artificial replacement for people who have lost a limb. Orthotics provide support braces and splints (orthoses) for people with different conditions. Prosthetists and orthotics work with people of all ages and with different requirements. Orthotists provide a variety of aids to correct problems or deformities in people’s nerves, muscles or bones. Scientific and technical The manufacturing of prosthetic limbs is currently undergoing improvements, some of which include the choice of materials. The typical prosthetic replacement consists of a custom-fitted socket made from polypropylene, a pylon made of titanium or aluminium, knee cuffs and belts that attach it to the body, prosthetic socks that cushion the area of contact as well as realistic-looking skin. Certain parts of the limb like the feet are made of wood and rubber. Prosthetic limbs are first prescribed by a medical doctor after consultation with the amputee, prosthetist and a physical therapist. Accuracy and attention to detail are critical in the manufacture of prosthetic limbs due to the purpose of providing a limb that is as comfortable and functional as a natural limb. The various components are assembled in a variety of ways, using screws, adhesives and laminates. The entire limb is assembled by the prosthetist’s technician using equipment like torque wrench and screwdrivers to bolt the prosthetic device together.First the prosthetist examines the amputee and measures the length of the appropriate body section and determines the position of the bones and tendons in the remaining part of the limb The prosthetist can then produce a plaster cast of a stump commonly made of paris plaster as it dries easily and makes a detailed impression.The exact duplicate of the plaster is then made of the stump and a layer of clear thermoplastic is heated and vacuum-formed around the mould. Before the permanent socket is made, the prosthetist works with the patient to ensure that the test socket fits properly. If adjustments are needed with the test socket, they are modified according to the patient’s feedback. Since the test socket is made of thermoplastic, it can be reheated to make small changes if necessary. If the patient is uncomfortable it can be fitted with thicker socks.Bibliography