Communication as a process according to Mariano 2016 is ‘’a free flow

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Communication as a process according to Mariano (2016) is ‘’a free flow of verbal and nonverbal interchange among persons with the aim to achieve understanding and advancement. Skills in communication are defined as the ability to successfully reach communicative goals and the expertise in which one engages in communication behaviours (Ruble, 2017). To be effective in communication, there are processes, strategies to consider and it applies to all contexts of human communication; health communication, intercultural, interpersonal, public speaking and mass communication (Eadie, 2009). In this entry, the focus is on a 9:51 minute clip from ‘The Lenny Henry Birthday Show’, hosted by Trevor McDonald on Lenny Henry’s 60th birthday. It will look at how interpersonal and public speaking is carried out and what types of methods for operationalizing communication skills will be critically outlined. This clip covered the four major purposes in effective communication as suggested by Ceccio and Ceccio (1982) to inquire, inform, persuade and to entertain. This requires verbal, listening and nonverbal communication skills and styles.Verbal CommunicationThe verbal content of in communication is the spoken word and generates the content theme during the communication process, the voice volume, pitch, articulation(du Pré, 2014; Nelson-Jones, 2002). Important to the clip was the use of open questions by the interviewer; there were seven questions in total which where authoritative in style and progressively changed, expanding in context; directing the interviewee to respond and guiding the interview to a supportive style (0:29 – 0:38) (Ellis, et al., 2003; Bramhall, 2014;). Questioning can be split into two categories open and closed. McDonald began with ‘why’ (0:39), this skill was very effective as it provided more engagement in conversation that allowed steady communication (1:05).Open questions allowed Henry to explain his conversation without the need for a yes or no’ answer (1:04 and 3.55).Closed questions however, observed in the second question ‘how old were you?’ (1:10) can limit communication, encouraging monosyllabic responses, but can be informative tend to control the length of conversations (1:46). It is ‘task-centred’ allowing the interviewee to further expand their answer whilst showing continued interest. According to McCabe & Timmins (2013), a combination of both open and closed but weighted towards more open questioning promotes better results. In questioning therefore, the type of engagement creates a rapport and dialogue in a way that allows communication to thrive. Arnold and Boggs (2011) define interaction to include; language, gestures and symbols to convey intended meanings and ideas in conversation. The communication skills used in the video clip all contribute to factors and were used to create a comfortable and much-enjoyed interview.Communication with an accent (3:13) ″hinter-grate″ can be an icebreaker in dialogue and help the audience to be comfortable. However, it can also be perceived as labelling if there are negative preconceived notions about one’s class or culture (Hargie & Dickson, 2004).ListeningThe ability to develop and offer close and sustained attention can be achieved in three aspects of listening according to Burnard (2005) is essential for any good listener the use of ‘minimal prompts’. An obvious aid to show that ‘I am present’- ‘the head nod, ‘yes’ um’s and mm’s’(1:32, 2:26) (Bamoallem, et al., 2016). On the other hand, overuse of this aids can be irritating and may be less effective if it is inadequate or filtered (Egan, 2018). Paralinguistic aspects of listening are non-verbal, about emotions and feelings timing; when to follow up a question (1:05) and can convey or contradict attitudes, emotions not necessarily with the spoken word (McCabe & Timmins, 2013). Non-verbal communicationIn contrast nonverbal communication exerts more influence than verbal communication as it consists of all forms of communication not involving the spoken word (Dunbar, 2017). Social psychologists will tell us that what we say with our bodies can five times more powerful than words (Harris, 2014) and can be ‘listened’ to. The clip showed Henry use body language to illustrate and expand the dialogue with gesticulation, facial expression, smiles, and eye contact (0:40-1:04, 2:19- 2:45). However, notably, although McDonald engaged actively, his hands were clutched to the interview notes and crossed (3:19), this do not impair the dialogue but indicates an unconscious closed reception a barrier in communication (McCabe & Timmins, 2013; Rezende, et al., 2015) state, body language should be congruent with the words we use. Another positive communication skill, was the position of the persons (0:29-0:38). These chairs were set where McDonald and Henry faced each other at a slight angle towards the audience. Body positioning is essential; with space enough between them so not seem too intrusive. In Stickley (2011) SOLER model suggests, leaning forward in an attentive posture shows the speaker that they are heard (6:05, 6:11), whilst making it possible to look at the person directly in a way that is not discomforting.Communication skills related to security and belongingThe Senses Framework comprises six senses that are ‘prerequisites for good relationships within the context of care and service delivery’; they are security; continuity; belonging; purpose; achievement and significance (Ryan et al., 2008 p 79). These six senses are seen by Nolan originally envisaged as a means of promoting therapeutic direction for nursing staff working in long term care settings with frail and vulnerable older adults (Orr, et al., 2014). However, these senses did not stop at the elderly but also extended to staff as he believed that they should experience it too.Andrew, et al. (2011), on the other hand, suggests that trust and supportive relationships with family are essential and underpinned by good communication within the household. The fundamental premise of Nolan et al.’s vision of relationship-centred care is that good care can only be delivered when the ‘senses’ are experienced by all the groups involved (Watson, 2016).At the start of the clip McDonald introduced Henry saying ″without any further ado, let’s bring on the big man himself, please welcome Sir Lenny Henry″ (0:02). The positive verbal communication skill here gave a sense of security, the interviewer addressed him by title, it allowed Henry feel comfortable and be present not worrying about the task at hand but creating a positive environment (Cooper, et al., 2013). This continued with nonverbal communication by touching; a firm hand shake from the interviewer and embrace creates a sense of belonging and reassurance (0:11). A person-centred communication leads to maintain and improve relationships and enables trust and a feeling of ‘not in this alone’ (Ryan, et al., 2008).When Henry’s friends encouraged him to do imitations ″even if it was crap, they’d say, “Go on