Concepts and discriminatory and anti-discriminatory practiceP1:Equality- equality means fairness and justice. Equality assures that every individual has equal opportunities no matter what their abilities are or backgrounds like. The concept of equality in health and social care means that a professional isn’t allowed a personal biased view to affect the way they take care of the patient based on the colour of their skin, nationality, culture and social class. There are laws in place to make sure that every person is treated equally. The Equality Act 2010 protects the rights of individuals and increases equality for all. It provides a discrimination law which safeguards individuals from unreasonable treatment and encourages a fair and more equal civilization. In a health and social care setting, working within a diverse range of people each member should be handled equally with respect as a team. Without the connection the team will work ineffectively which can cause a lot of complications.Diversity- diversity means that all individuals are respected and valued. Diversity is the way to appreciate people’s differences between each other and treating another person’s values, beliefs, cultures and lifestyles with respect. The concept of diversity includes acceptance and respect. It’s a way of understanding that every individual is unique and realising an individual’s differences in a positive way. People tend to feel more comfortable with people who have similar cultural backgrounds as they tend to value others like themselves. Social cohesion is when a community stay together for as many reasons like ethnicity. People tend to have a feeling of being belonged into group as it gives them a feeling of safeness and understanding in an environment. In the education system over the years there have been a wide range of diverse cultures being explored within the curriculum. Learning another language can be very useful in a health and social care environment as it would give the care user a better understanding on what the health care professional is trying to deliver. The Race Relations Act (2010) supported race equality which means it makes it unlawful to discriminate against employees and trainees etc. because of their race. This has helped build a diverse workforce. Nelson Mandela states that “No one is born hating another person because of the colour of their skin, background or religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love.”Rights- human rights are civil rights and liberties that belong to every single person in the world, from childbirth to loss of life. These rights can never be pulled away from someone unless someone breaks the law. For example, Shamima Begum who fled England to join the Islamic State of Iraq, in 2019 she wanted to return back to England however the government denied her request and stripped her rights due to the fact she was involved with terrorists. Rights are legal privileges, for example a person has the right to live in society without being abused. Every individual has 30 basic human rights according to the Declaration of Human Rights which was created by the United Nations. An example of rights in a health and social care environment would be that service users have the right to security and individual rights being met.P2:In health and social care discrimination happens more frequently than we expect. This can fluctuate between your colleagues discriminating against you or even care users discriminating against you. Discrimination is defined as being treated unfairly because of who you are. Discrimination is when you are treated worse than another person due to ur characteristics. Health care professionals might intentionally or unintentionally label or judge someone by their looks etc. Other people within the health and social care environment should be able to pick up or recognise if somebody else is being mistreated. Equality, diversity and rights have been enforced within every health and social care setting to make sure every service user has a fair treatment. If a Muslim woman applied for a job and didn’t get the job because she is wearing a headscarf would be discriminating towards her. If a person is found out being discriminating towards someone, they could potentially lose their job. Stereotyping- stereotyping is when a person categorises another person into a specific group. Stereotyping thinks that people within the same categorised group are all similar. For example, all elderly people like to play bingo. Not everyone is similar people should be treated in a different way matching to their needs. The effects of this discriminatory practice can have negative results. A person who is being stereotyped can cause them to feel low about themselves and to have a low self esteem due to bad experiences. Bullying- there are many types of bullying such as physical, mental, sexual and verbal etc. This can affect a person’s mental health and self-esteem as they might feel less confident and question what faults they have within them to be treated like this. For example, if a health care professional is physically abusive towards a care user this will affect the care user into thinking that they aren’t worthy enough. Bullying can have more effects like less empowerment, as this would make a person feel less powerful in a way that they are more vulnerable of being taken advantage of. A person could also feel lonely as people are leaving them out. Prejudice- prejudice is when a person has an opinion about something or someone who they don’t know a lot of information about. Many people prejudice against others as they might be from a different country. When a person is prejudice against others, they tend to think they are superior than others. The effects of this discriminatory practice are often against service users. They can become depressed which can lead to more health issues. A health care professional will have an opinion about someone however this shouldn’t interfere with their work in a health and social care setting as the person wont be treated fairly. Abuse- there are many different effects of abuse like physical, mental, verbal etc. Physical abuse is harm to an individual’s body for example hitting, cuts and burns. The person who is being abused usually won’t speak up on what’s happening as they have a fear that if they tell somebody the person abusing them will do something worse. Psychological (mental) abuse can occur in relationships and even family members. Mental abuse can cause damage to the victim to make them believe they are worthless and at fault for every situation. The person who is being mentally abused won’t speak up about how they are feeling as it’s hard for them to process what’s going through their own head at the time. The person being abused will usually push away people they love as they feel like other people will take advantage of them. Neglect is also abuse this is when a person fails to provide for the basic needs of one or more people that he or she is responsible for. Labelling- labelling is when you put a person or a group of people into a specific group based on what they have heard about them. For example, if a health care professional is constantly referring a label on an elderly person, they might feel low about themselves. Labelling a person can cause them to lose motivation and it will make the person feel like they are that label that people are implying them to. One way to overcome labelling is for health care professionals to not assume on how an elderly person might be because of what they seen with other care users. Infringement of rights- infringement of rights is when we are not respecting an individual’s rights by ignoring or abusing them. For example, in a health and social care environment a service user could feel like they aren’t being taken care of properly by their carer. This could lead the patient feeling neglected as none of the health care professionals aren’t taking care of the patient appropriately.Covert and overt abuse of power- covert abuse of power is when someone uses hidden force to discriminate against someone. In a health and social care setting, the health professional could treat one patient differently from all the other patients who are getting treated more fairly without getting caught. Even if someone has the same qualifications as another person, they might not get picked due to race or skin colour. Overt abuse of power is when a person openly uses power to discriminate against people. If someone recognises this form of abuse and does not get dealt with then this can have a negative impact on the person being abused as they feel like no one can see what is happening to them which can then lead on to more issues. Abuse of power affects people’s health if they feel helpless in stopping the abuse when it is coming from a person who has more power over them. An example would be if a male nurse got paid more than a female nurse even though they are both doing the same job. The possible outcomes of discriminating someone can have a big impact on their life like they could start drinking or smoking. People who drink or smoke usually do it to make them feel calm if they are stressed or have anxiety etc. Physically people who are being discriminated against might self-harm themselves, their diet might become poor where they hardly eat. Emotionally a person who is being discriminated might be very defensive on their feelings which would make it hard to tell if they are being discriminated against. Intellectually people who are being discriminated against might start skipping lessons or school days, some people might start being difficult and not wanting to learn but usually teachers don’t pick up that sort of behaviour except put it under ‘bad behaviour. Socially someone who is being discriminated against might not want to be around others or might be quieter around their friends which could then lead to the person being left out from the group.