David_Edward_20180029_Business & Academic English_ASST 2_2019

Health Issues and the cost of medication in PNGPapua New Guinea is the largest nation in the pacific region and classified as one of the low middle-income country with an estimated growing population of 90% living their life in the rural areas. In this essay I’m going to talk about the health issues and the cost of medication in our nation. According to the health Science Journal states that health issues happens when regular metabolism of our body failed or altered regards to pollutant, pathogens or various cause of health issues which are classified as disease. In PNG the common health issues we are encountering are; endometrial hyperplasia, Cancer and Tuberculosis. These issues are further explain below. Firstly, PNG researches found out that the most people encountering the most frequent health issues are women. Among those issues, one of them is “Endometrial hyperplasia”. Through the help of Wold Health Organisation 1994, PNG Doctors identified this disease as a major cause of female death in many hospital in the country especially to those woman at the average age of 52 years old, have not been pregnant, too young when her menstrual period began, heavy cigarette smoker, has obesity and women that has family background of ovarian, colon or cervix cancer. Endometrial Hyperplasia is a disease that usually happens when there is an abnormal or irregular thickness in the lining of the mothers’ womb or uterus (endometrium). It is caused by overabundance of oestrogen without female hormones. If the process of ovulation did not occur, female hormones are absent and the lining was not shed, the endometrium will continually develop in response of oestrogen. According to the World Health Organisation 1994, they have categorised it into four parts which is simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, simple hyperplasia with atypical, complex hyperplasia with atypical. However, it is not similar to cancer but sometimes cause or leads to the risk of getting cancer like bleeding urination. It is normally occur after climacteric, ovulation period stops and if no more female hormones are made. The most and common symptom of it is when having uterine blooding, bleeding heavily or longer than regular during the menstrual period or if menstrual cycle counts below 21 days and lastly bleeding after climacteric or menopause. It is better for women to see their Doctors before it turns out to be a cancer. Secondly, one of the most comment health issue also faced by man and woman in PNG is cancer. Cancer has been identified one of the killer disease in Papua New Guinea which has been estimated that 10 people die every year especially in the rural areas due to the higher cost of medication, lack of awareness or late treatment and lastly, there is no treatment facilities to facilitate the patient. Based on medical symposium in Goroka, it outlines that the cancer burden in Papua New Guinea has gone beyond expected levels and the needs addressing not only in secondary level and tertiary but also includes the primary level. According to Doctor Victor Golpak (CEO for Kimbe General Hospital) he said that, when they refer a cancer patient to tertiary level, the patient will not be able to survive the disease because the treatment will be only palliative treatment. He also said that, as surgeons they only approach the patient if the patient is referred for surgery for the removal of lump or ulcer or if there is an abnormal growth on the patient. Most of the patient are discharged to die at home. Due to that the rate for cancer mortality are now not accurate (Dr. Golpak). Most of the victims for some reasons such as lack of access to hospitals, failure of the primary nurse or HCO in recognition of the disease, system failure in allowing preferred referrals to an appropriate cancer specialists, the system fails to give helpful resources to help investigates and treat the victim appropriately and failure of the victim to notify the problem quickly. This reasons causes the patient to present at the point of too late definitive treatment. In PNG we have no proper fertilities like a cancer screener to identify common cancers Dr. Golpak said. Lastly, above the two common health issues faced by Papua New Guinea citizens, Tuberculosis (TB) is the most popular disease that causes death in this nation from children age 15 up to adults age 44. Tuberculosis is the oldest of all diseases among the developing countries. It is known as a communicable disease or potentially serious disease caused by bacteria that usually affects the lungs and can be transmitted or passed from one person to another through the air. It can be prevented and treated. It has been estimated that 90% of the population in developing nations are carrying TB bacteria and PNG is one of them. Tb itself is categorised into two parts which is latent TB and active TB disease. Having latent, the bacteria cannot spread because your immune system is able to fight against the disease and it will not be transmitted. When your immune system is weak, having several diseases, malnourishing, or a positive HIV and AIDS, you are at the risk of getting active TB and contagious of transmitting the disease. It is spread through microscopic droplets when an infected person cough, sneezed, speak or laugh, sing and spit. The symptoms are; coughing that last a month, coughing blood, loss of appetite that leads to weight loss, fever and night sweats. In PNG Tb is prominent and about 435 out of 100,000 citizens suffered the disease due to the increase of medication.To conclude, In PNG most of the health issues are faced by people living in the rural areas with low income rate. Most people are dying because of insufficient fertilities to help the people with, insufficient medicine, low in supply in medicine causing surplus in price and the people are not able to afford it and lots of private hospitals with higher cost of medication. It is better to look after yourself rather than facing the consequences. ReferenceHealth challenges (https://www.burnet.edu.au/countries/8_papua_new_guinea)Health Science Journal (http://www.imedpub.com/scholarly/health-issues-journals-articles-ppts-list.php)By Dr. Mathias Sapuri 2/26/2019 Papua New Guinea Health Newshttps://health.onepng.com/health-tips/endometrial-hyperplasia-a-new-epidermic-lifestyle-disease-among-papua-new-guinea-womenGallos ID, Alazzam M, Clark TJ. Management of Endometrial Hyperplasia. RCOG/BSGE Green-top Guideline No. 67. 2016;67:2–30. ttps://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/green-top-guidelines/gtg_67_endometrial_hyperplasia.pdf. [Google Scholar]American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 440: The Role of Transvaginal Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Postmenopausal Bleeding. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 114:409–411. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] Allison KH, Reed SD, Voigt LF, Jordan CD, Newton KM, Garcia RL. Diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia: why is it so difficult to agree? Am J Surg Pathol. 2008; 32(5):691–698. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318159a2a0 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682169/)Papua New Guinea health News.Tuberculosis in PNG (https://health.onepng.com/tb-in-png.html)

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