DE Report 2A

Table of Contents

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITYChandkheda, AhmedbadAffiliated ITM UNIVERSE VADODARAA Report On- Convertible Stretcher to WheelchairUnder subject ofDESIGN ENGINEERING – 2A (250001)B.E. III, Semester – VMechanical EngineeringGroup ID: 177892 Sr. No Name Of Student Enrollment No. 1 Achint Thakkar (170950119536) 2 Tirth Pagedar (170950119512) 3 Vedant Jadav (170950119007) 4 Meet Gohil (170950119005)Mr. DIGBIJOY SARKAR(Faculty Guide)Mr. JAY MANDALIA(Head Of the Department)PROJECT APPROVAL CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project entitled “Convertible Stretcher to Wheelchair” is a bonafied report of the work carried out by :Thakkar Achint (170950119536)Pagedar Tirth (170950119512)Jadav Vedant (170950119007)Gohil Meet (170950119005)In Semester 5 under the guidance and supervision of Mr. Digbijoy Sarkar for the Design Engineering – 2A in Mechanical Engineering at Institute of Technology & Management Universe, Paldi, Vadodara, Gujarat.To the best of my knowledge and belief, this work embodies the work of candidate themselves, have duly completed, fulfill the requirement of the ordinance relating to the Bachelor Degree awarded by Gujarat Technological University and is up to the standard in respect of content, presentation and language for being referred to the examiner.Internal Guide:External Examiner:ABSTRACTThe challenges faced during transferring the patients exist from ancient times. People who get seriously injured or ill were carried by others by means of wooden stretcher with cloth or leather tied to it. Afterwards they were carried on wheels which reduced the effort of the people carrying the patients. Although we have evolved in the field of healthcare and technology we are not yet able to address this problem efficiently. Adopting various kinds of research methods helped us to obtain more information about hospital mobility aids and for data collection. Mobility aids are used for transportation of patients. Wheelchairs and stretchers are the most commonly used mobility aids for the movement of patients. Transferring the patients from wheelchair to stretcher or to the medical bed or vice versa is always an issue for the attendant or nurse. There is a revolution of wheelchairs available today driven by needs and desire of man.Hence we propose a design of Automated Wheelchair Convertible Stretcher which is a boon to the medical field. It is so made that it could be maintained and operated easily either by the patient or by the attendant according to the comfort of the patient. Our study shows that it is possible to save 50% space by the Automated Wheelchair Convertible Stretcher design. The product will thus likely be an efficient mobility aid in hospitals.Key Words: Wheelchair, Stretcher, Wheelchair convertible stretcher, Mobility aid, Healthcare, less space, comfort. How we came up with this idea?Initially we (group members namely Achint Thakkar, Vedant Jadav, Tirth Pagedar and Meet Gohil) were not knowing which topic we should select, we all sat and discussed on various topics and came up to conclusion and selected Hospital as our domain because we thought that it is currently the best domain to work on. To observe different activities and environment of the hospital we went to “Sterling” Multi-Speciality Hospital located in Ellora park area in Vadodara. The main idea came when we were hanging around in the hospital to see different activities while doing so we observed that the hospital was equipped with two lifts of different capacities out of which one was for patients which was having more capacity and the other lift was for different purposes. Unfortunately the lift having the larger capacity was out of order due to maintenance and the biggest problem due to this was that patients who were on stretcher could not get into the lift because the only lift in use was the one with smaller capacity. So we came up with an idea of making up a “Convertible Stretcher to Wheelchair”. So that the stretcher could converted to wheelchair so that it could be easily moved on the smaller lift or when the bigger lift is facing with some problems.TABLE OF CONTENTSTopic Page NumberTITLE PAGE CERTIFICATE ABSTRACT iTABLE OF CONTENTS iiLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iii1.INTRODUCTION 12. MODELLING2.1 AEIOU CANVAS &MIND MAP2.2 EMPATHY CANVAS2.3 IDEATION CANVAS2.4 LNM CANVAS2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS2.6 PROTOTYPE 23. DESIGN CALCULATIONS 9CONCLUSION 12APPENDIX 13LIST OF FIGURES –Figure 1 – Convertible Wheelchair ImageFigure 2 – AEIOU CanvasFigure 3 – Mind Mapping CanvasFigure 4 – Empathy Mapping CanvasFigure 5 – Ideation CanvasFigure 6 – LNM CanvasFigure 7 – Product Development CanvasFigure 8 – Prototype ImageFigure 9 – Prototype Image 2Figure 10 – Prototype Image 3Figure 11 – Snap shot of DE PortalLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS –AEIOU – Activities, Environment, Interactions, Objects, UserLNM – Learning Needs MatrixPDC – Product Development CanvasINTRODUCTIONIn simple words a wheelchair can be described as a structure having a set of wheels attached to a chair. Wheelchair is a device which can empower and enable a person with a disability to live a normal and independent life. Over the years wheelchairs have evolved rapidly from the manual wheelchairs to the powered wheelchairs. But still these wheelchairs have not been able to satisfy the needs of the disabled people. It is therefore critical that the problems of disabled be understood and accordingly wheelchairs are developed fulfilling their needs. In India number of disabled individuals is increasing every year. Mobility aids are useful for patients for transportation. Wheelchairs & stretchers are the most commonly used medical equipment for the transportation of patients. So we have designed a multipurpose wheelchair that can work as wheelchair as well as a Stretcher. Its construction is so easy and can be operated and maintained easily. We can use simple mechanism which is powered electrically to achieve the required motion. This project is the result of a design and development of a multi-functional Wheelchair that would perform all the required functions.DESIGN SOLUTION – We have adopted Henry Ford’s Method of Approach for design solution. It is the method to make or invent the product or design based on the positive approach that is the task is to be completed by hook or by toes. And stick to the final goal without getting frustrated or leaving the idea and finding another solution.38671506343650BENEFITS:- Easy mobilityOccupies less spaceMultipurposeIncrease comfort level of patientCan be used in old-age homesShifting of patient from one place to another is reduced (Figure 1– Convertible Stretcher to Wheelchair)MODELLING AEIOU CANVASAEIOU Framework : AEIOU is a heuristic to help interpret observations gathered by ethnographic practice in industry. Its two primary functions are to code data, and to develop building blocks of models that will ultimately address the objectives and issues of a client.AEIOU stands for 5 primary processes – Activities, Environment, Interactions, Objects and Users.On 31st December, our team took observation of our domain(Hospital). We went to Sterling Hospital, Ellora Park, Vadodara and observed all the subjects covered in our AEIOU Canvas.AEIOU Canvas :-(Figure 2 – AEIOU Canvas)MIND MAPPINGMIND MAPPING Framework : A mind map is a graphical way to represent ideas and concepts. It is a visual thinking tool that helps structuring information, helping you to better analyse, comprehend, synthesize, recall and generate new ideas. Just as in every great idea, its power lies in its simplicity. Basically, mind mapping avoids dull, linear thinking, jogging your creativity and making note taking fun again. After doing the work in AEIOU Canvas, we created a link among all our observations and plotted the Mind Mapping Canvas.MIND MAPPING Canvas :-(Figure 3 – Mind Mapping Canvas)95059511972290 EMPATHY MAPPINGEMPATHY MAPPING Framework : Empathy mapping is a tool that a learner can use to gain a depth of insight into the emotions of a user of their choice. It helps in identifying specific act by the user in a given cicumstances. Through imagination, a learner learns to create or visualize scenarios using one’s thoughts.After plotting mind mapping canvas, we went to our Domain on 22nd January, we asked few persons there and noted down happy and sad stories. With the help of which we can think of the problem and it’s solution. EMPATHY MAPPING Canvas :-(Figure 4 – Empathy Canvas) IDEATION CANVASIDEATION Framework : Ideation canvas is the creative process of generating, developing and communicating new ideas, where an idea is understood as a basic element of thought that can be either visual, concrete or abstract. Ideation comprises of all stages of a thought cycle, from innovation, to development, to actualization. With the help of Mind Mapping and Empathy Mapping, we came up with various problem faced by the people started thinking about the solution to one problem that was caused due to inaccessibility in the patient carrying lift. IDEATION Canvas :-(Figure 5 – Ideation Canvas) LNM CANVASLEARNING NEEDS MATRIX Framework – Learning Needs Matrix will help students to identify the learning requirements at an early stage along with prioritization of specific learning along with defined time duration/ time allocation for each learning priority.We have identified the work to be done in our project with our concepts of BE 2ND Year and prepared this canvas.LNM Canvas :-(Figure 6 – LNM Canvas) PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVASPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Framework : The product development canvas is a planning tool that allows product managers to map, design, describe and differentiate their product strategy in a single page.As health sector plays very important role in our day-to-day life, we have selected Hospital as our domain and as observed by our group we have came across a problem and are trying to solve or reduce the problem with the help of Design Engineering Principles.After completion of Ideation Canvas we decided to design a product called Multipurpose Stretcher, we again went to our domain building on 7th February with our prototype to ask, improvise and suggestions for our solution to the problem and how they react towards it. And what actually they think should/must have in our design solution. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Canvas :-(Figure 7 – Product Development Canvas) PROTOTYPEPROTOTYPE : It is a preliminary version of the device or product from which other forms are developed.We have designed our prototype model, which will clear our view to functioning and features of the product.In our prototype, we have used PVC Sheets and designed the solution to the problem. The prototype is fixed and is not allowed for any relative movements. However it gives the idea of its basic functions. PROTOTYPE :-(Figure 8 – Prototype Image)FORCE CALCULATIONS COMPONENTS:Armrest Backrest Leg support Seating portion Wheels MATERIAL TO BE USED: 6061 Aluminium alloy Properties:Tensile strength= 300 MPa Yield strength = 270 MPaFatigue strength = 90 MPaShear strength = 200 MPaElongation =10%DIMENSIONS OF WHEELCHAIR*:*assuming standard dimensions of wheelchairBackrest : Width= 45cm; length= 90cmSeating portion: Width =45cm; length=55cmLeg support: Width= 45cm; Length = 45cmWheels: Diameter (d) = 15cmTotal length of the wheelchair when it’s converted into stretcher= 183 cmAssuming the weight of the wheelchair be 25kg.Assuming the average weight of person be 100kgLet, W= weight acting on the wheelchair µ= coefficient of friction P= power required to move the wheelchair F= force required to move wheels T=torque required to move wheels V= linear velocity of wheelchair S= angular velocity of wheels R= reaction force. Therefore total weight = 100kg+25kg =125kgW=125*9.81 =1200N Assuming, µ=0.3Weight on 4 wheels=1200NWeight on each wheel (acting in downward direction) = 1200/4 = 300NTherefore, reaction force acting in upward direction (R) = 300NForce required to move wheels due to friction (F) = µR = 0.3 * 300 = 90NAssuming the linear velocity of wheelchair (v) = 4km/hrV = 4 * 10003600 =1.111m/sAngular velocity of front wheels: s = Vr = 1.11/ 0.075 = 15 rad/sS = 2πN/60N= S*60/(2π) = 15*60/2π =143rpmTorque required to move wheelchair (T) = F*r = 90 * 0.075 = 6.75NmPower required to move wheelchair (P) = 2πNT60 = (2*3.14*31*6.75)/60 =21.9WConsidering reliability of material = 90%Let, Ka = surface finish factor Kb = size factor Kc = reliability factor Kd = stress concentration factor Se = endurance limit of componentKa=1; Kb= 0.85; Kc = 0.8; Kd= 0.45S’e = 0.5 Sut = 0.5 × 300 = 150 N/mm2Se = Ka. Kb. Kc. Kd. S’e = 1*0.85*0.8*0.45*150 = 45.9 N/mm2Endurance limit of aluminium alloy = 45.9 N/mm2CONCLUSIONThe present study was intended to develop a concept for a wheelchair convertible stretcher, with the motivation of saving space and precluding exertion by the patient. Adopting various methods helped us identify the various issues of the topic, importance of safety and significance of materials and manufacturing process involved in the whole product. From the identified needs ergonomic design, mechanism and safety were prioritized by us. The conversion feature of this device makes patient transfer easier. This device combines the concept of patient mobility and patient transfer. This is an excellent choice for a person seeking for two features, rather than going for two different products, he can choose our automated wheelchair convertible stretcher integrated with two different features. It reduces the cost, the floor space and complexity of having two individual products for individual needs without compromising the original products comfort. Our study shows that it is possible to save 50% space by our project design. The product will thus likely be an efficient mobility aid in hospitals. Though the advantages of the fabricated device are multi-fold, there is still room for improvement as far as fabrication is concerned. (Figure 9 – Prototype Image 2) (Figure 10 – Prototype Image 3)APPENDIX(Figure 11 – Snapshot of DE Portal)