E-PRESCRIPTION PROCESS IN FILUHA CLINIC

ABSTRACTThis project concern about design and development of online prescription system, today there are so many health institutes those give a service of online prescriptions to the customers, those institutes control human health factors, like activities created while personnel perform his / her task without the help of online service. Because all the activities are performed using hand writing system, so there may be created some mistakes like unreadable hand writing, incorrect name of drugs, and even it may be occur, giving unrelated drug to the patient. So these mistakes lead the patient death, and other problems.This project’s aim is developing an online prescription services, those enables the doctors (prescribers) to prescribe online without any doubt to errors, enables the pharmacist (dispenser) to dispense drugs to the patient without any error, enables the porter (card holder) to store patient demography and search patients through the system by using the patients ID easily.The other aim of this project is also, it provides a secured service to the whole staff members. Because, it provide a login interface to check whether the user is an authorized person. Additionally this system enables the administrator to manage all the staff members by asking them to verify their User Name and Password.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor Sofonias Y. For the continuous support of our project preparation,for his patience, motivation, and immensive knowledge. His guidance helped us in all the time of preparing this project . Besides our advisor, we would like to thank the head department of information technology (Tigst), Our sincere thanks also goes to Dr. Ayele who provided us an opportunity to join with the clinic communities to help us in answering the interview questions and other information about their clinic. Last but not least, we would like to thank Endalk, who help us in some technical supports and giving us his laptop for writing this project paper.Glossary:SQL: Structural Query LanguageID: Identification CardUML: Unified Modeling LanguageUI: User InterfaceHER: electronic human resourceEPCS: electronic prescription systemHTML: Hyper Text Markup LanguageOOD: Object Oriented DesignUC: Use CaseID: IdentificationChapter 1 CHAPTER ONE1.1 Introduction Nowadays, use of information communication technology in all over the globe is becoming interesting such activity. More specifically, due to this reason, there is a rapid and considerable advancement in the Medication sector owing to the application of computer technology. And the great break through, the sector is showing in terms of simplifying the way that are mainly the result of information technology.During the recent 20 years, information technologies significantly changed the daily life. Modern computer systems, in combination with communication systems, offer a variability of new services. The Health Care sector, as a combination of private and public sector, also experienced various changes with the introduction of information systems. As information technology student we believe that the basis for improving clinic operation is shifting the day to day manual operation of the clinic into computer based system. But, it is true that the majority clinic that is found in Debrebirhan does not use computer based system.As a result, we can be a witness for the problem occurred due to the manual system they use..This errors result from a number of factors. The most frequent source of error is miscommunication between the provider and the pharmacist. Communication errors stem most often from illegible handwriting, unclear abbreviations. Unreadable or vague prescriptions result in unsuspected and large amount of patient problems. Finally by observing this problem we are motivated to convert manual system prescription process to web-based electronic prescription process in the clinic.1.2 background of the projectHealth is a state completephysical, mental and social well being and not the mere absence of disease. It is generally concerned with the anatomical integrity and physiological functioning of the body. It means the ability to perform routine tasks without any physical restriction. The fault in the process of prescription causes many deaths. Prescription is atask of a doctor (nurse) in which it is the process of giving treatment to the disease. This process involves analyzing and writing patient history, writingdiagnosis, giving appropriate treatment to the diagnosed diseases, making some calculation of dosage especially for pediatrics, analyzing drug appropriateness and finally transmitting the treatment to the dispenser.E-prescription is a tool for prescribers to electronically send an accurate, error free and understandable prescription directly to a pharmacy from the point of care. 1.2.1 Vision and Mission of the organization1.2.1.1 VisionConstruct the modern and customer based online prescription system around the area that appears1.2.1.2 Mission Satisfy the patients by giving them effective and efficient service. Create a doubt free system of online prescription. Add new technology to the organization’s activities.1.3 Statement of the problemAs study reveal a lots of deaths occur each year in the world to medication errors. In Ethiopia many people die each year due to error in prescription.This problem make us to look very carefully and to do project on it. InFiluha cliniccurrently, all activities are performed full manually system (paper based).To find facts of the problem theteam is identifying the following problem.Those problems result due to the manual system of documentation. Such as, The manual system stores all the patients’ document without order and stores in shelf, those type of storages are very danger to the worker,because it is difficult to find out the patient demography. Miscommunication between the prescriber and pharmacist from illegible handwriting, unreadableorders and, abbreviation. This unreadable or vague prescriptions result in pharmacists making calls or returning prescriptions to physicians for questions clarifications renewals requests. This makes physicians and their staff, spend most of their time responding to phone calls from pharmacists regarding prescriptions rewriting the prescriptions.The old prescription system is not only appear a problem, concerning with the patient’s demography, but it is also one problem to the patient that leads him even a death.1.4 Objectives of the project1.4.1 General objectivesThe general objective of this project is, to change the manual system of the clinic in to online prescription system,and enables the clinic to give effective services.Therefore through electronic prescribing, all health care stakeholders including clinic management, patients, and pharmacies expect to see online prescription related benefits.1.4.2 Specific objectiveThe specific objectives of the web-based E-prescription process in Filuha Clinic are listed below:  To use the e-prescription process To enable Pharmacists (Dispensers) to dispense Drugs accurately. To automate the problem of paper based prescription To enable the administrator to control the work flow of each staff members. Enables the Porter (Card holder) to search the patient’s demography easily. To Keep the patient’s document safety  Enable prescribers to prescribe a confidential prescription. To give a fast and quick service for the customers (patients). To develop the prototype for Filuha clinic. To design user interface in Filuha clinic.1.5 Significance and beneficiary of the project1.5.1 BeneficiaryThrough e- prescription all healthcare stakeholders including providers, patients and pharmacists will be benefited.1.5.2 SignificanceThe project has a significant role for the patient, pharmacist, and even the nurses.• It reduces time and energy• It helps the patient to take appropriate medicinesIt helps the pharmacist to work without doubt.• It helps to find patient history easily• It serves as a basis for conducting other researchers who has interested to e-prescription process.1.6 Scope of the projectThe scope of the project is registering the patient’s demography, prescribing the drug to the patient, and lastly dispensing the patient online. Besides this,the dispenser’s idea how to take the medicine to the patient is manually due the lack of time and human knowledge.Some manual inscription is included if the drug is not in the clinic. And also, the system does not focus on the amount of the drug in the clinic. 1.7 Limitation of the projectDue to the lack of time ,budget ,and human knowledge we did not study about human resources management system, the laboratory result and administration process.So, we are going to study (focus)on e-prescription system in that area. Additionally, we have not use the questionnaires method of fact finding of the data.1.8 Feasibility1.8.1 Technical FeasibilityGeneral study in the project area is shown that the current technology and ability exist in order to complete the proposed systems objectives. There for our project is doing with current equipment, existing software technology and available personnel and therefore it can be conclude that the system is technically feasible.1.8.2 Economic feasibilityOur system is economically feasible.But, its benefit should observe later in the long run working environment. In this study, itcan’t be approved in deepness since the study is still in the beginning of project. However, here are some of the costs and benefit that are estimate to show in the short and long run.1.1.1 Operational feasibilityOur system definitely will be used if it is developed and implemented. There is no resistance from users that will undermine the possible applications benefits. The proposed system may take time to be fully operational and it requires consistent support and training to users of the proposed systems. 1.8.3 Political feasibility:The system development is not conflicted with any governmental directives, because it gives services for the people effectively and efficiently, all the stakeholders also agreed before the system has been developed. So the government is profitable.1.9 Methodology and tools1.9.1 Fact finding techniquesFor the successful requirement analysis of this project, we tried to use the following methods and technique for gathering informationObservation: carefully looking and listening of the existing system and identifying the gaps between the existing system and the proposed systemInterview: We ask the manager of the Filuha clinic to give us necessary information about the system they are using now by preparing some questions. 1.9.2 Project development toolsIn system analysis and design methodologies we use different types of tools, like hardware tools, software tools and programming tools software.1.9.2.1 Hardware toolsIn system analysis and design methodologies we use hardware like:  Intel(R) core i3-3110M CPU @ 2.4GHZ 2.40 GHZ Processor 5,004 MB RAM 5000 GB hard disk 64-bit operating system 4.9 desktop graphics performance Keyboard Mouse1.9.2.2 Software ToolsIn system analysis and design methodologies we use Software tools like:• HTML: – used to design the site.• PHP: – used to code server side scripting.• NOTEPAD ++:-for developing the website.• MICROSOFT OFFICE 2013:-to write the documentation.• EDRAW MAX:-to draw the diagram.• OOD: Used to object oriented Design• MYSQL: – used to create and store tables.• XAMPP: – for database management system1.10 Budgets1.10.1 Cost estimated of the projectNo, ITEMS QUANTITY UNIT OF PRICE(BIRR) TOTAL COST(BIRR)1 Stationary.paper One pack 150.00 150.00 Pens 5 pieces 3.50 17.50 Printing cost 50 pages 4.00 200.00 Photo copy 50*3 0.50 75.002 Telephone expense 50.003 Transport 60.004 CDs 5 8 40.00 Total 592.50Table 1 cost estimate of the project1.11 Task breaks down and deliverable1.11.1 Task of the team members in the projectID Name of the members TasksITK/114/03 Tesfay Hagos LeaderKCOM/122/02 Tsegaye Girmay Vice LeaderITK/117/03 Teshome Utase SecretaryITK/119/03 Tirunesh Alemu MemberITK/083/03 Mulugeta Abebe MemberTable 2 Task of the team members in the project1.12 project scheduleProject phase Months Week1 Week2 Week3 Week4Proposal  Requirement analysis  Design  Proposal presentation  Implementation  Implementation presentation  Table 3 schedule of projectChapter 2 SYSTEM ANALYSIS2.1 NTRODUCTIONThis chapter deals with analyzing the general work flow of the existing system, players in the existing system. It produces a broad outline of the proposed system that identifies the function to be performed and the technical aspect that the system must fulfill and briefly describes the existing system functionality, problem of the existing system. It also deals the functional and non- functional requirements of the proposed system. In addition to this, the business rule will be identified the document used in the existing system, and reports generated in the existing system, alternative solutions suggested to solve problemsof the existing system, how the proposed system looks like and user interface prototype will be presented.2.2 Description of the existing systemAnalysis of the existing system has the following advantages.  It helps to understand the existing system.. It helps to understand the objectives achieved by the existing system. It helps to identify the position of each personnel in the new system design. It helps to find whether the system is feasible or infeasible. It helps to find the information needs.2.2.1 Business Rules2.2.2 Business rule in existing systemA business rule is effectively an operating principle or polices that must be fulfilled and obligated in order the system will function properly and effectively. It often pertain to access control issues, business calculations, or operating polices and principles of the organization (Ambler, 2001.)Filuha clinic has its own policies or rules on prescription process how it facilitates the service and the type of services which are functional used by whom. The rules have included below:Br1: The patient must have identification cardBr2: patient should tell their compliance clearlyBr3: the prescriber should• Write the prescription correctly and legibly• Drug treatment is only one of the treatment options• Treat prescription as personal property• Diagnosis and other part of the prescription have to be complete• Abbreviation are not recommended• Be receptive to call from dispenser who is trying to verify prescription• Use ICD number for the disease that have impact on social stigma• Refill as per the list of refilled drugsBr4: The dispensers should:• Check legality of the prescription• Check completeness and accuracies before dispensing• Check for whom the medicine is being dispensed: actual client or care taker• Review prescription carefully and verify with prescribers if incorrectly prescribed or if in doubt about the content of prescription• Labels of drug should be clear, legible and indelible/impossible to remove• Drug should be dispensed with appropriate information and counseling/analysis or therapy• Keep blank and filled prescription properly in pharmacy section• Register and keep filled prescription for at least 2 years• Do not dispense copied prescription• Dispense single prescription for one time only unless stated as “Refill” Br5: prescriptions:• Are valid only if it has the seal of the health institutions• Written and verbal information to the client complement each otherBr6: Minimum drug label information should include the following• Patient name• Generic name, strength and dosage form of the medicine• Dose, frequency and duration of the medicines• Quality of the medicine dispensed• How to take or administer the medicine• Storage condition

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