How Addictive Substances Affect Our GenesWe as humans have different genes in our bodies, which led to several responses to various kinds of drugs. So, let’s know more about addiction is a disorder of the brain system due to a figure of genetic and environmental agents for developing an addiction, several stages of addiction are hereditable and react with many environmental sources and genes replications. Addiction is affected by both ecological and genetic factors such as home environment affects and increases the danger of addiction in which family members use alcohol at home breaking the rules.What is the meaning of genes and what is the form of gen?Genes are considered one of the most important units for all living creatures. The gene is a fundamental genetic unit; which consistence of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). We can get DNA from our parents genetically. Each cell has two sets of chromosomes, one of this collection is from the father and the other one is from the mother. The sperm which is from the father and the egg which is from the mother each of them carries one group of 23 chromosomes and these chromosomes include 22 chromosomes in addition to the sex chromosome X or Y. Human genes are different from one gene to another in the DNA amount. For example, some genes have 1000s of DNA and however other genes have 100s of it. Average human genes between 20000 to 25000 gen.When is the function of the gene?Genes determine almost everything about an organism. it is control inheritance from parents for their kids. One gen or more than one affects a particular feature. For instance, genetic genes determine the qualities of each cell in the body like color in the eye or some diseases such as sickle cell anemia and Huntington’s disease are inherited and are affected by genes. but not all of a person’s qualities are from genes only, there are also environmental factors that can impact the person’s qualities. For example, a child may inherit length genes from parents, but during his life does not get enough nutrition that does not show the qualities of length he has. Moreover, genes control the function of the cell by identifying the materials that you install inside the cell. It determines the structures, enzymes, and chemicals that will be created in them. Genes contain basic information for building proteins, enzymes, and biomaterials needed to build body organs and producing substances (proteins and enzymes) in different organs to perform their functions. It also carries the biological clock in which the organism develops from a fertilized egg to organ formation to childhood, then puberty, maturity, and aging.Classification of drugs: They get classified basically on how they affect the body. They are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. These fall into prescription and others legal when turning off a certain age whatever they are kind of crack at that as well. In depressant it slows down those messages which are a benefit when you are in pain and its go ahead and take some pain medication, it slows down the message telling you that you are in pain, so depressants have got their good on their bad side. In small quantities they might make you feel relaxed also it makes you a little drowsy, it affects concentration and coordination .Examples of the depressant: opiate like heroin which is also known on the streets smash H .they are things like morphine and codeine our more medical- related drugs that help us with pain management, alcohol considered legal in a certain age. Another type of drugs, stimulate, they speed up the brain, the exact opposite of what’s been happening with depressants its speed up the message that is going around in that brain of yours and they can feel you more alert and awake , they increase your heart rate also your body temperature goes up , your blood pressure can go up as well .Examples of stimulating : they include nicotine which is in tobacco and cigarettes also you can get it in cocaine blown coke crack and the popular one is ecstasy. The last category is hallucinogens and these drones are going to alter the way that you see things or the way you perceive the reality around you , they are it mainly affect your senses and emotions , they can be things like cannabis which is also depressing but it has the quality as well and it could also include LSD .Many genes influence addictionGenes affect addiction, but experts could not find any single genetic change that causes this because each of us has different genetic differences. The tendency towards addiction is that unlike some else diseases, no single gene determines whether a person will suffer from alcohol. For example, people with substance use disorder are a complex feature where they are affected by changes in multiple genes. Not only that, but they are also affected by the environmental agents in which an individual life, and to have multiple genetic causes and there is a study that shows the range of inheritance risk ranges from 40 to 60.But also, people who have a genetic predisposition only mean that they are more at risk or that their risk factor is higher than others. Therefore, they should raise the level of prevention and awareness in their lives. A study has shown that addiction disorders range from 0.39 for hallucinogens to 0.72 for cocaine.Addiction as well depends not only on heredity and ecological factors, but there are more serious factors: psychological, cultural, family and society problems, relationships, trauma, and financial status. Two factors share into the variance of heredity: the phases of addiction and developmental nature.Mouse models for addictionSeveral years ago, researchers tested mice and laboratory mice strain to find specific traits of addiction. Such as the high preference for some drugs or alcohol, where they have found that individuals who are of the same breed, they are almost identical indicates that they have the same addiction profile while individuals from different chains have significantly different addiction profiles. This was one of the first clues containing gene component addiction and researchers learned that they could build lines of animals with highly specific addiction profiles by breeding mice with some addictive traits also that mice born with differences in drug preference, tolerance, belonging, sensitivity and others. the researchers will not stop here, but they are still studying most breeds and animals, and one of the researchers is a Dr.Scott Rogers he studies different strains of mice (right) as he varies in the likelihood of their alcoholism. According to all this finding that researchers would like to reach is to identify similar or identical genes in humans that cause the person to be less or more apt to alcoholism.The reward pathway is fundamentalThere is a similarity among the reward pathway and the study of addiction through the fact that food, nutrition, and social interaction are important for living not only for humans but also for animals, leading to increased breeding opportunities among animals depending on the availability of needs, which is the first reward path, when they arise, genes that form the reward path are transmitted from one generation to another through natural As a result, genetically transmitted over time becomes a major part of the brain even as the rest of the brain increases selection. Moreover, we conclude that humans and animals both share the reward pathway and most of the genes that govern it, so mice are also prone to drug addiction.Because many organisms are used according to the genome sequence, when a gene is detected in the organism, researchers then search for a similar gene in humans using a DNA database.Among the organisms that researchers have used in addiction research are:- Both chimpanzees and mice have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes similar to the human genes.- Zebrafish has 25,000 genes and scientists regularly transfer human genes to zebrafish to study their functions. – Fruit flies 13,600 genes.- Roundworms and Caenorhabditis Elegans have 19,100 or about 21 percent of human genes.How do genetics affect alcohol addiction?Genes are passed to us through an important transporter (parents)to pass to the coming generation of daughter cells, behavioural traits to perform several tasks, and so several genes have multiple responses to different types of additives such as alcohol used nowadays (alcohol use disorder). Addiction results in various physiological effects such as stress, anxiety, or feeling down and depressed as a response to alcohol usage. Human traits are specified by our genetic structure with the help of the replication and duplication process. The expansion of alcohol usage is not only influenced by genes and other internal organs but also by simple factors such as social media, how many people around the world are sharing the same interests of addictions and being unable to feel resistant towards it but feeling more attracted to it .well the more the risk factors a person has, the greater the chance of developing an alcohol use disorder or addiction, it’s important to look up for a treatment or medication to avoid a worse result.Several genes may be led to different feedbacks according to diversities of genders. Some genes had been identified and scientists ensured that genes are connected to the transformation of addiction from parents to daughters or the coming generations in the future and the present. Treating the family and trying to find a suitable medication is a good way to decrease the spread of addiction to the coming generations.What are the therapy modalities?So, the ultimate goal is a drug-free state for most people. It is an ideal situation but unfortunately, it is not a feasible one, especially not in the short term for a lot of addicts, so there is the medication that we can use safely to prevent these individuals from relapsing into using illicit substance and basically to help them sustain their sobriety. The two most successful so far are methadone and suboxone. Suboxone is made up of two components, the main active ingredient is buprenorphine and the other ingredient in it that prevents abuse of it in the locked zone. By standing on the maintenance therapy the addicted individuals can continue going to work living their normal, so how do we treat? It is not one size fits all but one thing is for sure studies have shown that detoxification alone without anything else is not a sufficient treatment for addiction. Relapse following detoxification is very common, so what is advised is you start with detoxification to clear the person of the chemical substance and then you either go to an absence-oriented psychotherapy counseling which is not devised or you combine that maintenance therapy to prevent patient craving and withdrawal, the tendency for relapse, which is the most effective treatment system. Intro to methadone: methadone is synthetic but it full agonist of this receptor the MU, Fda-approved it is tasted, save and it does its trouble with overdose, but for the most part if it’s used appropriately by properly trained physicians on the appropriate patients it suppresses withdrawal symptoms, it reduces cravings , blocks the euphoric effects of drugs for over 24 hours that’s why once-daily dosing is enough to keep the patient stable, however, there is a major difference between methadone taken intravenously if its abused versus methadone administered in . Methadone maintenance clinic for example, in an oral liquid form, to swallow it is highly lipophilic, which means it likes to attaches to fat quickly, so if intravenously given it crosses the blood-brain barrier quickly and you get the rush on the drug-receptor because it is a full agonist,Pharmacology when taken orally: however if it is swallowed in liquid form must of it gets taken up by the liver about 90% and then over the 24 hours or 36 hours, the liver slowly in a steady-state release it, so, therefore, you don’t get that rush that high but you get a steady level of activation of the MU drug receptors That you don’t go into the withdrawal sicknessMorning dosing and methadone clinic: you take your morning dose at 5 or 6 AM and that’s what you do the healthcare dispense it to you and a certified nurse and physician is present as well and then you get on with your day .tablets are available of methadone and injectable ampules but these are easily diverted and sold on black market and abuse that’s why methadone clinics reduces their use.Detox versus methadone: when you compare the two you find that methadone maintenance results in greater treatment retention than an absence only counseling session series and lower use of heroin which was in this study.Methadone cannot be prescribed in your doctor’s office: problem with methadone is it due to its problem of overdose it cannot be prescribed in your regular doctor’s office in the primary care setting. For example, it has to be dispensed at certified canters that specialize in addiction but there are not enough of these canters to treat all the addicts in our society and that’s when we get into suboxone.Suboxone: Suboxone was released in 2000 it was the first drug that is FDA approved for the treatment of drug addiction in a physician’s office in an outpatient setting so if the person come to doctor office and decided that they are appropriate for this treatment the doctor can write a prescription as could for any other antibiotic and they can start their treatment as an outpatient so there are an ease and access more people can utilize this kind of service. Protective criteria: recovery from addiction is no easy task, and the consequences of relapse can be devastating even deadly. so, there are 8 essential elements for a successful recovery. Firstly, you must have a plan for recovery because of the odds of staying clean and sober decrease significantly without a solid plan. Triggers for cravings are everywhere Threats to sobriety abound. you would not want to navigate a minefield without plan Rather, you would want a specific strategy, good tools, and much support. Recovery from addiction requires the same preparation. Wanting to be clean and sober is good but not sufficient, you must have a solid plan for recovery to increase your odds of success. Also, you must follow the plan every day whether you feel like it or not. Your addicted brain is a hijacked an ill brain. Addiction disrupts the reward circuit of the brain, which is why addiction is an illness. Your brain has been hijacked into believing that the substances you abused are so necessary for survival as breath itself , so your brain becomes dependent upon the substances just to feel ok, which is why addiction so difficult to beat but there is hope with sobriety and time your brain will heal, but takes many months so you can protect your health brain from being manipulated by your hijacked addicted brain. you have to build a support system for sobriety which might include AA, NA, celebrate recovery , sponsors, outpatient addiction and mental health treatment ,and family and friends who support your sobriety if you are used to going it alone it is vital that you overcome your social fears and reach out to health others for support because if you could have solved your addiction by yourself, you would have done it long ago .Finally, we see that genes are the main agent that affects and contributes to addiction. The genetics factor varies from one to another and that no specific gene contributes to it. Besides, scientists are still working on a lot of experiments for them to know most of the genes, so we should take all the factors of protection by use of treatments and awareness to avoid the risk of addiction, no matter how high in the family tree.