Epidemiology in Public and Global Health

Epidemiology in Public and Global HealthNameInstitutionInstructorCourseDate Epidemiology in Public and Global Health“Tuberculosis outbreaks in the United States, 2009-2015,” by Mindra, Wortham, Haddad & Powell (2017) is an article focusing on tuberculosis outbreaks and the response by state, tribal, and local health departments and what assistance can be provided to the health departments to help them in addressing this outbreak (Mindra, Wortham, Haddad, & Powell, 2017). With TB being a major problem in the United States, this article focused on identifying some of the challenges in eliminating TB and interventions that can be helpful in interrupting transmission of TB (Mindra et al., 2017). The article gathered data on patient’s demographic characteristics and TB risk factors that were compared to outbreaks investigated between 2002 and 2008. The results indicated that TB outbreaks posed a challenge for frontline public health resources. Genotyping and contact investigations were also identified as important strategies to help in detecting and controlling TB outbreaks with a focus on homeless individuals as well as those with mental health issues (Mindra et al., 2017). One of the major challenges in addressing TB outbreaks is the depletion of frontline public health resources in the effort to respond to unmitigated Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission (Mindra et al., 2017). The article further analyzed TB cases by the mode of transmission as well as reviews from documented TB investigations in the United States with the help of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) between 2009 and 2015 (Mindra et al., 2017). This is because the CDC has been involved by the health departments in providing assistance for outbreak response through onsite investigations. This provides CDC with an opportunity to work closely with frontline public health partners in describing the epidemiology of the outbreak, understanding the chain of transmission, identifying individuals who have been exposed to infectious TB cases, and developing effective interventions to address the outbreak (Mindra et al., 2017). Epidemiological Triangle of TBA TB epidemiology triangle has agent factors, environmental, and host factors related to the transmission of the disease. This helps healthcare practitioners in understanding the transmission of the disease as well as other factors that influence the transmission of the disease (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). This includes the cause of TB, risk factors that contribute to the development of the disease, and how it is spread from one individual to the other. This enables the healthcare practitioners in developing effective interventions to prevent the transmission of the disease (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). One of the components of the epidemiology triangle is agent factors which are the causes of TB. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs as well as other body parts in serious cases. This bacterium is spread from one individual to another through the air if an individual inhales the bacterium when an infected person coughs or sneezes releasing the bacterium into the air (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). The second component of a TB epidemiology triangle is the host which is where the bacterium thrives. This is the human body with a poor nutrition negatively contributing to the spread of the bacterium to other body parts (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). This is because poor nutrition leads to a weak immune system which is unable to fight disease-causing organisms. The last aspect in a TB epidemiology triangle is the environment that allows the bacterium to spread to other individuals (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). This included crowded places, poor ventilation, and the lack of access to quality healthcare services where individuals can be able to implement preventive interventions. Effective interventions should be implemented in public place such as schools and churches to prevent the spread of this disease from infected individuals to other individuals (Aḥmad & Mokaddas, 2013). Causal Agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)Environment Factors (social factors and poor ventilation) Host (Humans, poor nutrition) The Nurse’s Role in Addressing the OutbreakNurses are important due to their roles of providing healthcare services to all individuals in healthcare facilities as well as other healthcare settings across the nation. In delivering these services to individuals, nurses have a role of educating the individuals on implementing preventive measures to protect themselves from being infected by TB (Fauci, 2018). Information is a powerful tool in healthcare delivery as it helps individuals to understand the epidemiology of a disease which will improve how they address certain diseases. Preventive healthcare services consist of important information that will help uninfected individuals to remain safe by taking preventive measures (Fauci, 2018). By the nurse providing education services to those that have been already infected, they will better manage their condition due to the long period involved in taking TB medications.It is also important to adhere to the medications since an irregular use of the medications can lead to resistance where infected individuals are unable to benefit from the drugs (Fauci, 2018). A nurse has also the role in addressing the outbreak by treating infected individuals where the nurse ensures that they are able to access healthcare services to prevent the complications that are associated with TB (Fauci, 2018). After an individual has been infected by TB, the next process involves seeking healthcare services for the right interventions to be implemented to help the individual prevent more negative effects associated with the disease. This will positively contribute in managing any outbreak of the disease (Fauci, 2018). Health Promotion Strategies That Could Have Been Implemented By Nurses to Mitigate the OutbreakOne of the health promotion strategies that can be implemented by nurses to mitigate an outbreak of TB involves participating in the decision-making process where effective policies are developed to ensure that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services (Sulis, Roggi, Matteelli, & Raviglione, 2014). This will enable the poor and marginalized individuals to access healthcare services preventing the spread of the disease by putting the right strategies in place. The nurse can also help in creating a supportive environment where infected individuals are encouraged to seek medical services without fear (Sulis et al., 2014). This will prevent any stigmatization of infected people which may negatively affect them in diverse ways. It is important to create a supportive community that provides help and assistance to infected individuals. This enables members of the community to use a community approach in addressing an outbreak of the disease instead of individual interventions that may fail to work (Sulis et al., 2014). A community approach will also enable the government to provide resources to the community that will help in mitigating the outbreak. ReferencesAḥmad, S., & Mokaddas, E. (2013). Tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, resistance mechanisms, treatment strategies and novel drug. New York: Nova Biomedical.Fauci, A. S. (2018). Addressing the Tuberculosis Epidemic: 21st Century Research for an Ancient Disease. JAMA, 320(13), 1315–1316. Mindra, G., Wortham, J. M., Haddad, M. B., & Powell, K. M. (2017). Tuberculosis Outbreaks in the United States, 2009-2015. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 132(2), 157–163. Sulis, G., Roggi, A., Matteelli, A., & Raviglione, M. C. (2014). Tuberculosis: epidemiology and control. Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases, 6(1), e2014070. doi:10.4084/MJHID.2014.070

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