Many women get pregnant every year, pregnancy is considered to be one of the most beautiful experiences in a woman’s life. However, with pregnancy comes multiple issues, both physical and psychological. Arguably the aim of pregnancy is to deliver a healthy baby. Pregnancy usually makes one want to change their lifestyle such as, quitting smoking and a change in their diets and nutrients intake. Pregnancy also kick starts the want and need for better health for the woman and the foetus (Garland, 2017). Studies have shown that pregnant women who exercise throughout their pregnancies avoid health issues such as; hypertension and microsomia as well as prevent and decrease stress. Woman experience a lot of changes while pregnant, these changes can also affect the way in which one can exercise without injures and also affect the exercise routine one can participate in. Using thorough research this paper will investigate the best ways in which women can improve their physical and psychological well-being when pregnant. The first chapter will contain the overview of the target group, pregnant women. Which then leads into the second chapter containing the needs and strategies which will be discussed and examined. The third chapter will contain fitness to music based on the needs and strategies, in the chapter the specific fitness to music choices will contain a description of why it is beneficial to the target group. Which then leads to the fourth chapter consisting of a fitness program made specifically for pregnant woman, and a fees and subscription chapter will complete the paper. 2.0 OVERVIEW OF TARGET GROUPIn this chapter the target group will be investigated and discussed in sections. The women’s ages range from their mid-twenties to their mid-thirties. The different sections such as; the demographics, phycological issues, physical activity issues and health issues will all come into consideration. The demographics are based on pregnant women in the Netherlands.2.1 Demographic, social status, incomeThe main target group that will be assessed are pregnant women in their mid-twenties to late-thirties throughout the Netherlands. Pregnancy is the time between conception and the birth of a baby, which lasts 40 weeks. Throughout pregnancy it is vital for a woman to be healthy as it affects the unborn baby (Elflein, 2018). However, some babies are premature. According to “Statista” In 2017, there were 169 836 live births in the Netherlands (Pas, 2018). The average income of someone working in the Netherlands is 37000 euros which is 2850 euros, which is a gross monthly salary. (AmsterdamTips, 2019)2.2 Phycological Issues Throughout pregnancy women can experience various psychological issues such as; depression, stress and anxiety. Women can experience depression throughout their pregnancy as well as postnatal depression which occurs once the baby is born (Government A. , 2017). In America, 13-23% of women suffer from depression during their pregnancies. There are many ways in which to treat depression while pregnant but one of the natural so do so is to exercise as it produces serotonin (Association, Depression in Pregnancy, 2019). During pregnancy it is easy to feel vulnerable and sad. Depression during pregnancy is more common when one has been previously depressed. However, every woman is different and some things trigger certain people, sometimes when you have been depressed in the past you are not during your pregnancy (NHS, Mental health problems and pregnancy, 2018). 2.3 Physical Activity IssuesExercising throughout pregnancy can have many different health benefits for the soon to be mother. During pregnancy many women can experience backache, constipation, swelling and bloating. Exercise during pregnancy can help reduce all of the above as well as boosting your energy and help with sleeping better, it can also decrease the amount of time you will be in labour and help with easier birthing. The recommended amount of exercise is 30 minutes of moderate to intense workout or exercise daily (Staff, 2019). Many women find that there is some discomfort with exercising while pregnant such as backpain and soreness, therefore restricting them with little to no exercise (Evenson, 2008). Women also experience fatigue during their pregnancy and are often too tired to participate in exercise (Evenson, 2008). 2.4 Health Issues Pregnancy puts a woman’s body through a lot, many changes occur. During these changes discomfort and irritation can occur. Some common problems that can occur during pregnancy are; backache, constipation, cramp, incontinence, morning sickness and nausea and high blood pressure and pre-eclampsia (NHS, Common health problems in pregnancy, 2018). Health issues that occur during pregnancy can affect both the mother and the baby. Some mothers have the health issues before they are pregnant and some mothers only suffer from these health issues once they become pregnant. One of the health issues that occur while pregnant is weight gain and obesity, when a woman is overweight before becoming pregnant they can often experience greater risks of getting preeclampsia which is high blood pressure during pregnancy (Government U. S., 2018). Gestational diabetes is a very common complication of pregnancy, it is high blood sugar. It can occur throughout pregnancy, at any stage in one’s pregnancy gestational diabetes can affect them; however, it mainly occurs in the last trimesters rather than the first. It can cause problems for both the mother and the baby. There are a few different reasons as to why this can happen but a more common reason is if your body mass index (BMI) is over 30 (NHS, Overview of gestational diabetes, 2019) 3.0 NEEDS AND STRATEGYThe previous chapter focuses on the health issues and the different concerns that pregnant women in the Netherlands and the world go through on a daily basis. Physical activity is briefly mentioned in the previous chapter, stating that it can help reduce stress and discomfort. This chapter will focus on the needs of the target group that were previously discussed as well as the physical activity, then a strategy will be thought up.Studies show that mental health issues such as depression can be prevented or reduced by exercise and physical activity. The recommended amount of exercise is 30 minutes a day a few times a week, without doing any exercise one can become more prone to depression and stress (Collingwood, 2018). Exercise has many benefits in general and while pregnant. Some of physical activities benefits include: increase of energy, better sleep patterns, reducing stress, feeling more relaxed as well as feeling more positive (Lawrence Robinson, 2019). Exercise produces chemicals in your brain that reduces stress and anxiety in addition to boosting your mood such as, dopamine and serotonin. Joining different clubs that offer classes such as Zumba and walking groups are good for mental health as it helps with meeting people and becoming more social and happier. Being physically fit helps both with mental health well-being and physical well-being (Raby, N/A). Exercise during pregnancy is very safe and encouraged. However, one should make sure that it safe for them by checking with their doctor and or nurse practitioner. Aerobic exercises and resistance training should be continued by pregnant women. Brisk walking and swimming are two different aerobic exercise that are beneficial for pregnant women, resistance training in the gym is using your own body weight, free weights or even machines in order to use resistance to build your muscles. Pilates and yoga help with both flexibility and muscle strengthening, not only does it affect and help your body physically but it also helps with your mind, it reduces stress and anxiety (Roux, N/A). Therefore, women who experience mental health issues before and during pregnancy benefit from physical activity as it helps reduce stress, anxiety and enhances one’s mood. Pregnant women are recommended to complete up to two and a half hours of exercise a week, split into 30 minutes a day. Physical activity can benefit one in many ways, it can give extra energy, help manage stress and reduce common discomforts. Not only does it have benefits to help with mental health issues and increase energy levels, it can also reduce the risks that come with pregnancy like gestational diabetes and preeclampsia (Dimes, 2017). The needs of the mother and baby are to stay healthy and to make sure the baby forms properly and healthily.“Pregnant women don’t get enough exercise, study shows fewer than 1 in 4 meet guidelines” (Boyles, 2010). Therefore, the target group should be encouraged to engage in more physical activity and join groups where there are other pregnant women or women who can motivate each other to get their 30 minutes of exercise a day. Women go through many different emotions and feelings during pregnancy, one of the biggest feelings during pregnancy is discomfort and lower back pain. To help reduce these feelings and issues physical activity is needed. There are many aerobic exercises that can minimise discomfort such as, swimming, running, brisk walking and prenatal yoga (Kramer MS, 2006). Physical activity is the strategy of the needs of pregnant women as physical activity is the common solution for physical activity issues and phycological issues. It is vital for pregnant women to stay fit and heathy during their pregnancy and after in order to keep themselves and their babies healthy before and after birth. Every woman is different and should take different measures to stay active, asking a doctor for advice is highly recommended. There are many activities that are of low intensity that are suitable for pregnant women to participate in, some include: brisk walking, housework, swimming and many fitness to music classes. Participating in prenatal classes will not only help stay active but also help stay social, having other woman in class can increase one’s motivation and encourage woman to stay active. To conclude, the strategy is simply staying active and healthy during pregnancy. All issues and concerns that pregnant women experience during their 40 weeks can be reduced or even terminated by daily exercise. The needs of the mother and baby are to stay healthy and to make sure the baby forms properly and healthily. 4.0 FITNESS TO MUSIC This chapter focuses on three different fitness to music classes, there are many different fitness to music exercising that are very beneficial to pregnant women. Fitness to music can help with reaching the recommendation of exercise during pregnancy, some are light intensity and some are high intensity. This chapter will deal with three moderate intensity fitness to music exercises.4.1 Pilates Pilates is a limited impact exercise that involves no jumping and focuses on movement and posture, it also works muscles and helps with flexibility. Pilates has a few different benefits for pregnant women, one of them being the strengthening of core muscles. Which then helps with the extra weight that a pregnant mother has to carry during the nine months and while the baby grows bigger. It also helps with the preparation of childbirth and the recovery after the baby is born (Charity, What kind of exercises can I do during pregnancy?, 2018). ‘Relaxin’ is a hormone that is released during pregnancy, it causes the ligaments that are connects to bones to become more flexible. Which then causes lower back pain and pain in the pelvis. Pilates can help strengthen the abdominal muscles, which can then help with the pain in the pelvis and the lower back pain. Pilates can also help with posture which then also helps prevent lower back pain. Like yoga, Pilates focuses on breathing. Focusing on breathing while pregnant is essential as air exchange between a baby and mother is very important. Learning the control of breathing can also really help during labour and child birth. There are more benefits of Pilates during pregnancy such as: improving balance, reducing strain while getting in and out of bed, maintaining a healthy weight, relaxing, strengthening legs and speeding up the recovery after child birth (Samuel, 2015). 4.2 ZumbaZumba is a workout that is based on dance and is high impact but can be altered to fit the physical needs of a pregnant woman. Zumba is a mix of aerobics and dance which is healthy, it is a mix of different Latin dance styles. It helps with flexibility and fitness in a fun way, it also boosts energy levels that are often low while pregnant. With the increase of energy levels, it can ease the discomfort of pregnancy such as, hormonal changes and the growth of one’s belly. With the music and energetic dance moves it can help decrease the stress levels and keep one’s spirits high and can help with depression (Khan, 2018). 4.3 YogaThroughout pregnancy the body goes through many changes both physically and mentally which brings on stress. Prenatal yoga can help preserve a healthy body and mind; it has many benefits. Prenatal yoga is beneficial to pregnant women as it focuses on poses that pregnant women can do. Prenatal yoga can increase strength and flexibility. There are numerous benefits of prenatal yoga, some of them are; improved sleep, reduced stress, decreased lower back pain and decreased headaches. There are some studies that show that prenatal yoga can help reduce hypertension (Association, Prenatal Yoga, 2014). 5.0 FITNESSFor many women it is important to be active and exercise during pregnancy. Therefore, it is vital to have an appropriate training strategy and program. It is also important for mothers to be to be mindful of the fact that it is both the baby and the mother that are at risk. Exercise is very important for all target groups. Within in this chapter, two different and safe exercising strategies will be created for pregnant women. The two will be aerobic fitness training and resistance training. 5.1 Aerobic Fitness TrainingAerobic fitness, also known as cardio, helps with breathing and blood circulation as one’s heart beats faster it means that more breathing has to occur therefore more oxygen will be circulated around one’s body (Kramer MS, 2006). Participating in low impact aerobic exercise while pregnant is smart as you can continue throughout the entire pregnancy. There are many different aerobic exercises that are suitable for pregnant women such as: walking, swimming and even some light house work (Charity, An easy pregnancy workout, 2018). 5.1.1 Frequency and Intensity The recommended amount of exercise for pregnant women per day is at least 30 minutes. The Australian Physical Activity Guidelines suggest that 150 minutes of moderate intensity workout should be performed weekly (Channel, 2019). During the exercise the pregnant women should be able to hold a conversation, if they are struggling then they should lower the intensity (NHS, Your pregnancy and baby guide, 2017).5.1.2 DurationThe duration of exercise for pregnant women should start at 15 minutes of uninterrupted exercise at least three times a week. As time goes on the exercise duration should be increased to 30 minutes at least four times a week (NHS, Your pregnancy and baby guide, 2017).5.1.3 Type of Activities Pregnancy does not stop one from doing their usual daily exercise. Various forms of exercise such as, running, walking, sports, dancing, house work and the three fitness to music exercises that are mentioned in chapter 3 (NHS, Your pregnancy and baby guide, 2017) can be performed by pregnant ladies. Any exercise that was performed prenatally can be continued up until one is uncomfortable while during the exercises (NHS, Your pregnancy and baby guide, 2017).5.2 Resistance TrainingNot only can pregnant women participate in aerobic fitness but they can also participate in resistance training as it has many different benefits. Resistance training can prepare one for labour as well as the basic things when the baby is born such as: lifting, carrying and pushing the pram (Charity, Strength training in pregnancy, 2018). Resistance training can also help with mental health and reducing stress. Before starting a resistance training workout, one must remember to warm up, going for a 5 km walk on the treadmill or even just for 15 minutes is a good warm up. After the workout one should also try to have a cool down or stretch efficiently, doing so helps avoid injuries and muscle soreness. Resistance training helps one stay toned before pregnancy and after delivery of the baby (Johnson, 2018).The above workout schedule focuses on a full body exercise. Each of the exercises works on a different muscle group throughout the body, they all have their own way of strengthening and support for comfort during pregnancy, labour and child birth. The exercises focus on the glutes, legs and upper body, each of the exercises can be modified in such a way that makes the client more comfortable or even make the intensity higher or harder. These exercises are supposed to help increase muscle strength and strength in general, to make it easier to carry the extra weight as the baby grows. Weights can be added or even the resistance bands can be used with some of the exercises to make it more intense or higher resistance. Depending on the fitness level this workout can be done two to four times weekly or three to five times weekly, whichever is more appealing. In order to have a gym that contains the necessary needs for the specific target group, the needs and demographics of the target group have been taken into account. The most important part is for the gym to be affordable for the target group, pregnant women in the Netherlands. The gym should contain all the different needs for pregnant women, classes that are taught by experienced prenatal instructors, all the equipment needed for resistance training, equipment needed for aerobic exercise and a swimming pool. The average price of a one-month gym membership throughout the Netherlands can range from €16,50 to €54. These gyms contain classes, changing rooms, steam rooms, personal trainers and the equipment to work out on own time (Wedia). This will be a gym that lets anyone and everyone be a member but will contain specific needs for pregnant women. A one month joining fee will be €40 and that will include: all the necessary equipment for aerobic exercises and resistance training, fitness to music classes such as: Zumba, Yoga and Pilates, qualified prenatal instructors, access to all the benefits in the changing rooms and advice whenever needed. Personal training will be at an extra cost. According to demographics of pregnant women, in chapter one, these fees will be affordable. In conclusion, pregnant women go through many changes throughout their pregnancies. These changes are both physical and phycological and some can lead to serious complications. To help with these issues and concerns physical activity and exercise is highly recommended. If women were physically active before they became pregnant, they should carry on with their activities and as time goes on decrease the intensity. If the woman was not active before pregnancy, they are encouraged to attempt 30 minutes of exercise daily. There are different types of exercises that can be performed by pregnant women, fitness to music is very beneficial, aerobic exercise and resistance training can also be beneficial and done by pregnant women. Overall, the more active a pregnant woman is, the healthier she will become and the healthier the baby will be. There will also be less complications and health issues during pregnancy and labour will become easier.
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