Focused Review: RN Mental Health ATI Online PracticeJorge CazaresMental Health Issues of Children and Adolescents. Mental health and developmental disorders are not easily diagnosed that makes them hard to treat and it is easier to make errors in treatment interventions and takes longer to treat them. Childhood and adolescent disorders can be classified for more than one mental health disorder. A child can become problematic when it is associated with school, home and social interactions. Disorders that can appear during adolescence and childhood include: depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, panic disorders, traumas, substance use disorders, such as alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use disorder, also feeding and eating disorders, binge eating disorders, anorexia and bulimia nervosa, disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit, ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, specific learning disorder and intellectual developmental disorder, bipolar and related disorders such as schizophrenia spectrum, non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior disorders and impulse control disorders. Some risk factors related to this disorders include: family history of depression, homelessness, chronic illness, learning disabilities, physical or sexual abuse, engaging in high risk behaviors, bullying, physical aggression or cyber-bullying behaviors, conflicts with parents or rejection by friends or family. Resulting in loss of appetite, feelings of sadness, crying, loss of energy, aggression, irritability, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, solitary activities, and high-risk behaviors.Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Involve the more attention for people with disabilities to control their behaviors. Some characteristics of this behaviors include impulsivity that consists in inability to wait for turns, behaviors related to running, interrupting others and acting without thinking in the consequences. Inattention is the lack of abilities of focusing, paying attention and listening to do accomplish their activities of daily living. Hyperactivity is the inability to stay quiet and stay still. Autism spectrum disorder is the inability of the person to interact openly to others normally so the person feels taken out frequently of social activities. This disorder happens more frequently in boys than in girls. Some other physical inabilities are related to this disorder such as sleep disorders and poor nutrition. Intellectual developmental disorder consists in the group of disabilities for people to interact with others as well as doing poorly in school, social participations, and daily activities during childhood. Specific learning disorder includes lack of skills in math, writing, reading, problem solving activities, and usually the people suffering from this they develop slower and reflect abilities from people younger to them and lower level skills mostly reflected for this type of disabilities, these people benefit from individualized education program. It is important to pay specific attention to people suffering from this type of disorders because they need more attention, and they need to make a big effort to even get their daily activities done correctly and they might be in more risk to develop another mental illnesses due to this lack of support and psychological factors that affect their self-esteem and may push them to have unwanted thoughts and may push them for harming themselves or do some harm that may take them to involve in risky behaviors. Interprofessional care and Medications. family therapies help in the coordination for problem solving within the patient and their families. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is useful to help change negative thoughts into positive ones, changing conduct disorders and impulse control into positive ones. Grief and trauma interventions for children encourages patients to express feelings and thoughts through drawings, and writings and playing to overcome traumas they may had in past experiences. Medications for Intermittent explosive disorder consist of SSRIs such as fluoxetine, mood stabilizers such as lithium, antipsychotics such as clozapine and haloperidol and beta blockers. Medications for autism spectrum disorders consists of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotic medications such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and aripriprazole. Medications for ADHD consists of psychostimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and amphetamine salts and nonstimulant selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Its is very important for patient to be compliant with medications and therapies for faster recovery, encourage patient for conflict resolution strategies, appropriate communication, individualized care, structural environment, referral for early interventions, limit self-stimulating and ritualistic behaviors by providing alternative play activities, determine emotional ans situational triggers, give plenty time for changing routines and monitor closely for behaviors to ensure safety for the patient at all times.Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies; Dosage Calculation: Administering Chlorpromazine. Basic medication dose conversion and calculation skills are very important for providing safe nursing care. Nurses are responsible for administering correct amounts of medication and calculating precise amounts of medications to give to the patients. Using three different methods such as ratios proportions and formulas and dimensional analysis to correctly administering medications. There are plenty of types of calculations including solid oral medications, liquid oral medications, injectable medications, IV infusion rates and correct doses by weight. It is important to mention the rounding portion if the number to the right is equal to or greater than 5, roung up by adding 1 to the number on the left. When rounging down it is important to check if the number on the right is less than 5 sound down by dropping the number leaving the number on the left the same. For doses less than 1.0 round to the nearest hundredth and doses greather than 1.0 round to the nearest tenth. It very important to keep in mind that minimal errors can make a huge impact in patients can become very harmful to them ad it is strictly to enforce this rules to apply in everyday reminder to nurses to keep on track to not commit errors that could lead to fatal outcomes. Nurses are responsible to keep track also for medications patients are unaware by taking themselves it is important to teach them for instructions and side effects as many patients may be unaware of them and make them recall or give some feedback of the medications they are taking to properly asses for further teachings or ways to make them remember their medications, their times to be taken, amounts and routes to take them and if they have any doubts of any kind always let them know that there is always people and health care professionals to respond to their questions.IV Flow Rates and IV Infusions with Electronic Infusion Pumps. Nurses also are responsible for correctly calculating IV flow rates and for large-volume continuous IV infusions and intermittent IV bolus infusions using electronic pumps at ml per hour and manual IV tubing at gtt per minute. Infusion pumps control an accurate rate of fluid infusions, They also deliver a specific amount of fluid during a specific amount of time. They also exist the manual IV infusions these are not like electronic pumps they take over when they are not available, they can regulate the IV flow rate using the roller clamp on the IV tubing. When they set the flow rate, they need to count the number of drops that fall into the drip chamber over 1 minute. Then they need to calculate the flow rate using the drop factor on the manufacturer’s package containing the set administrator. The drop factor is the number of drops per milliliter of solution given to the patient. Nurses should be aware that every patient might have special treatment equipment used and make in mind that they may also require more assessment and observation to avoid potentional harm to patients and they might not be aware of these and that can make things worse, its important to properly do use of equipment and understand what they are capable of and what they are not. Nurses are primarily in charge of patient safety is always encourage during any intervention.Using of Dimentional Analysis for Math Calculations and Dosages. It is very important to nurses to develop these skills and always make to mind that they can be also use for everyday problem solving activities and it helps develop cognitive thinking and can make things easier when talking about dosage calculations, medications and analysis for treatments for specific clients. Dimentional analysis is encourage in everyday care for patients in any onset including home interventions as well, not only professional but we all should be aware of everyday taking medications over the counter as well because any error could lead us to any unwanted situation we could have avoided just because we don’t read labels and directions on medications we are taking for granted side effects that could be very harmful for us. Dimentional analysis are methods to explore dimentions or units of called factors. One calculations leads to an answer. Clinicians or nurses do not need to memorize this complicated formulas. Chances dor error are diminished, and increasing the populatity of these dosing calculations. More than one approach can be ussred to build an equation using this methods. Nurses need to make this factors available to not make errors and patient safety should be encouraged to avoid stressful situations and not lead to other potential illness or potential harm tu clients that got in the hospital for a specific intervention and could lead them to suffer for other illness or condition that could be fatal and cause a huge impact in either the nurse and the patient and their families please make note on this for all and hospitals and healthcare out there because we all have families waiting for us. References:Berman,A., Snyder, S., & frandsen, G. (2016). Kozier 7 Erb’s fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, process and practice (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Burchum, J.R., 7 Rosenthal, L. D. (2016). Lehne’s pharmacologyfor nursing care (9th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.Eliopoulos, C. (2014). Gerontological nursing (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Halter, M. J. (2014). Varcarolis’ foundations of psychiatric mental health nursing: A clkinical approach (7th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Saunders.