foold gold

A Migrants Fools Gold Migration is a difficult circumstance that affects several social, security, and economic issues, that are manipulating our lives through an interconnected world. Migrants flee from all over the world looking for a safe haven in other countries, because their quality of life is suffering. Due to the political and economic instability that both the Middle East and Africa are experiencing, Europe has received a large number of migrants, trying to enter their borders. The EU in most recent years has received individuals from North Africa, West Africa, East AFrica, and the middle East who are attempting to escape war, poverty, and general violence. With thousands of people who are risking their lives everyday to reach the EU for asylum, the EU now begins to face the groundbreaking migration crisis. First, before I go addressing any of the asylum and refugee legislations that are present within both EU in the UN, I believe that it is beneficial to address in brief the historic circumstances that led to these forms of legislation in the first place. After the end of World War II refugees became a legal category. This resulted in mass migrations of people all across Europe, and into the United States, as a consequence of religious persecution and war. This is one you and created you an HCR and made them solely responsible for the management of the “refugee problem.” After that in about 1951 there was a refugee convention that created the guidelines to properly allocate who is and who is not a refugee. Originally the term “refugees” meant individuals who had left their homes from general violence. The term continues to change as the decades roll on. A common example we see nowadays is, someone who is close or related to someone with a politically high rank that the government is persecuting. Although, once that’s people leave their homes in fear of structural, political, physical violence, or in fear of death, torture, or persecution, they can still apply for asylum. Continuing on, the UNHCR changed it again to “to account for external acts of violence upon nation states, such as those by an occupying force, generalized internal violence, or massive violations of human rights,” (UNHCR 2001:9) The UNHCR bases determination of eligibility, by their state of origin. For example, if one state is experiencing a lot of violence, they can flee to another state and be granted asylum without having to get a court hearing. This “rule” has about 141 state signatures. Along with that, there’s a non-refoulement rule that strictly states that, a state can’t send back a refugee or someone claiming asylum. There are NO exceptions to this rule. Now, it’s important to know what are exactly the policies that these international organizations have. The EU has their own set of policies, that they have put forth to best deal with the migration crisis. Whether or not their system aids refugees, that’s another question. EU systems and regulations closely mirror the recommendation that are made by the UNHCR, in other words, the UN refugee agency. In cases of asylum, the EU reserves the right to utilize the Asylum Receptions Directive, Dublin Regulation, and the Asylum procedure Directive. The DR is a form of regulation that assures each designated member state in the EU, process the asylum claims. When a migrants flees, they must lodge their asylum request in the member state the arrive to first. The EU state is responsible for filing these requests, and the Dublin Regulation is supposed to assure that, the state does its job. Italy and Greece received some of the “backlash,” as far as the migration issue is concerned because, they are the most common places of entry to the EU. Unfortunately, because of this, Italy and Greece carry more weight than other member states. When migrants arrive into Italy, they are required to get their fingerprints done, so that they can be entered into the asylum system Euronav, which is an online system made to keep track of those seeking asylum in Europe. Asylum Procedures and the Reception Directives, are meant to make sure that everyone has access to basic quality of life, as people begin to enter their new places of living. The same way in America, when arresting someone, you must say their Miranda rights, authorities are obligated to explain asylum conditions to asylum seekers, about 15-20 days after getting their asylum application. After, those same authorities must give these refugees their documentations explaining their status in the state, and grant them the freedom to move to any EU member state of their choosing. Unfortunately, when it comes to EU level policy, it does not mean much. Due to the fact that, local authorities in each member state are responsible for ensuring that the rights of these refugees are “reserved.” If those local authorities aren’t doing their part (and there is no system to check if they are,) then all of these migrant policies are essentially meaningless. On the positive note, the EU has done some initiative on solving for the refugee crisis. The EU has a humanitarian and civil protection response to the migration crisis. The European Commision has created a comprehensive approach to deal with the migrant crisis in Europe through their European Agency for Migration. They have a lot of power available to them at the EU level, and in Member states.They support refugees in four ways: Providing Emergency support within the EU.Helping transit countries with humanitarian funding.Putting the EU Civil Protection Mechanism at the disposal of Member States and neighboring countries.Scaling up humanitarian aid for major crises. The EU has a set of laws known as the CEAS, it the Common European Asylum System. This system ensures that the EU member states are protecting the right of refugees and asylum seekers. The implementation of CEAS across all EU member states varies. Again, these systems are implemented through the local authorities, so it essentially pointless, but it’s the thought that counts?The UNDR or the declaration of human rights establishes that all individuals have the right to asylum in other member states so that they can be free of persecution in their current member state. Unfortunately, following that, the UN states that these rights can be abridged “in the case of persecution is genuinely arising from non-political crimes are ask contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN.” There is no specification printed on the document that explains what constitutes “conditions genuinely rising from non-political crimes,” nor does it explain what is meant by “a contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.” It makes these refugees assume that their right to asylum in a state can not interfere with any other right that is enumerated in the UDHR. Basically these migrants “walk on eggshells,” and although they don’t break anything, they still get punished somehow. Next, I am going to examine certain states, and their policies. Although I am aware that Italy, Greece, Spain, and Germany, all have varying systems, I am going to focus on mainly on Italy and Greece. I’m focusing on these two because, they receive the most migrants, being the the closest points of entry into the EU, so they receive the most impact from this migrant crisis. A major requirement for both the UN and the EU legislation is that, individual nation-states are responsible for law enforcement. States typically will classify a refugee coming into state as an “illegal migrant,” because they weren’t able to go through the entire systematic process. This is where the Bossi-Fini law comes into play. According to this law, illegal or irregular immigration is against the law. It can be punishable with up to 3 years in prison or a 10,000 euro fine. It also requires a very long and lengthy system (similar to the U.S’s,) that is way to complicated and hard to get through. If that was not enough, migrants have to get government official signatures (i.e minister, officer …) These systems are broadcasted as ways to help with the migration crisis, but in retrospect, these migrants are being oppressed by this very system, and maybe experiencing the same conflict with their home land, with this system. This Bossi fini law has created different kinds of “welcome centers” for every different kind of migrant there is. They are :CPSA’s- First Aid and Welcome Centers.CDA’s- Welcome Centers.CARA’s- Welcome Centers for Asylum Seekers. CIE’s- Centers of Identification and Expulsion.Typically while individuals are initially begin in the CPSA’s when they first come into asylum, the CPSA is meant to provide medical care to these refugees, all the while their “eligibility status” is being determined. After, the state will determine what kind of asylum you qualify for, and direct each refugee to their respective “system.” If there is an individual who is ineligible for asylum, they remain in the CIE for up to 18 months. As far as receiving migrants is concerned, the process is this, migrants will have their first insignias contact with authorities. Next, the authorities will ask that the migrants provide their, name, D.O.B, at first. Then these officials record the information and transport the migrants to CPSA, like Umberto I. Later, the migrants allow for the authorities to get their fingerprints. After, the local authorities will put these fingerprints in the Eurodac. Umberto I is meant to upheld basic rights for migrants coming in. It has a welcome sign in sever different languages, and the sign informs the public that Food and Healthcare services are available. On top of that, “guests,” get a pack of cigarettes, pocket change, and a phone card. The sign elaborates what the “house” rules are, and talks about what the migrants can utilize. Migrants are allowed to stay for 3 days, and then the must leave, and cannot come back. Now, on the other hand, Greece had a simile system to that of Italy. Due to the fact that, a lot of migrants were relocated to Greece, increased other political issues that Greece is going through. Greece is at a severely horrible economic position right now, and because of this, the migrants that were relocated to Greece, were relocated once more to other neighboring states (I.e France, Germany, UK, Spain,) and now their entire system is corrupted. Nobody is documenting anymore who comes in, and who comes out. Here is another clear example of how these migrants are being shortchanged, even more so, abused by two different systems. Lasty, I am going to discuss, what is the role of non-governmental organizations in the migration process. I am going to talk about two organizations. The ACRI, also known as, Italian Association for Recreation and Culture,) and the Emergency NGO’s (non-governmental organizations.) Many migrants that come in to Umberto I, often feel oppressed and mistreated by the system. Although various “laws” have entitled these migrants to “basic human necessities,” there were really no regulators or NGO’s around, due to the conflict they have with local officials. Migrants needed more than food and healthcare services, coming into a new state. These individuals also needed legal counseling and services that the ACRI provides for them. Many arrived in Italy ready to start their new lives, but were being held back by Umberto I. These migrants weren’t given any update on when they would be transferred. Migrants would place bets on each other to see, who would be transferred first because nobody really knew, and these migrants had no information behind the system that was supposedly supposed to be working for them. Very few percent of migrants were transferred from Italy to go to other states. Most waited in Italy, in Umberto I, waiting to find out whether their status had been updated. After a while, people lose hope and eventually leave. The system is forcing these people, looking for help away. The ACRI helped these migrants because it gave them services to utilize, when they didn’t know what was going on with their status, or where they could be transferred to. Emergency NGO’s work to provide healthcare services for migrants in Umberto I. These organizations wanted the state to provide funding to get migrants in Umberto I, the healthcare they needed, but the state did not believe that they should provide any funding. This led to the NGO’s going on their own accord to find money to get healthcare to these people, who were in desperate need. The NGO’s now come to Umberto I and provide medical services 4 days a week for the migrants. The staff on these medical services has, one doctor, a few nurses, and a medical administrative coordinator. In addition, these NGO’s have people certified to speak several different languages, for each migrant they received. These individuals are called “cultural mediators.” These mediators are typically paid by the NGO’s, and they’re mainly found in Italy.The Asylum system is failing our migrants. Especially in a time where we are experiencing an influx of migrants due to the general violence that surround the states just outside of both the EU, and the UN. Although the states have tried to create a system that states it will “aid migrants and provide the human basic right and necessities,” it doesn’t do just that. If anything, as explained above, the system perpetuates structural violence for these migrants, on top of the fact that they were already experiencing this similar violence back home. The EU, and the UN, could be doing so much more to help these migrants and they don’t, and states like Greece who’s is suffering economically and still had to deal with a majority of migrants (with Italy,) on a normal basis. Both the EU and the UN have “legislations” that are supposed to guarantee, rights of these migrants are being upheld, but they are not. The only variation of how European states have responded to the migration crisis, is dependent on how many they receive. The more there are, the more disheveled the system becomes, which is why Italy and Greece have become, the way they are. This migration crisis is prominent all over the world. Including the U.S. Universally, all of these systems have been built in a way to oppress migrants, and we need to find more efficient ways to help them. It’s about time that structural, physical, and social violence come to an end.

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