Foundational Neuroscience

Week 1 Discussion: Foundational NeuroscienceNameInstitutionInstructorCourseDate Week 1 Discussion: Foundational NeuroscienceAgonist-To-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic AgentsMental health workers should have a theoretical foundation in psychotherapy and neuroscience as this helps in diagnosing and treating clients. Agonists and antagonists play a key role in pharmacology since they act in opposite direction (Berg & Clarke, 2018). This means that when an agonist produces a certain action, an antagonistic reduces or opposes the action. An agonist drug binds to and activates a receptor to produce a specific response. An antagonist blocks the action of the agonist (Berg & Clarke, 2018). Agonists alter the function of the activity of receptors by combining with chemical substances to promote certain action. However, an antagonist does not alter with the activity of receptors rather interferes with the action of the neurotransmitter. As agonists stimulate an action, the antagonists sit idle only to respond after the agonists have carried out their action (Berg & Clarke, 2018).Actions of G Couple Proteins and Ion Gated ChannelsReceptors in neurotransmitters can be grouped into two classes which are the g couple protein and ion gated channels. G couple proteins and ion gated channels are proteins in the cell membrane that regulate the opening and closing of postsynaptic ion channels (Johnson & Lovinger, 2016). Ion gated channels open to allow the transmission of ions across the plasma membrane in responding to the binding of a chemical messenger such as a neurotransmitter. The g couple protein responds to diverse stimuli such as neurotransmitters, hormones, drugs, and light (Wulff & Christophersen, 2015). The g couple protein binds extracellular substances and acts as molecular switches in cells by transmitting signals from diverse stimuli from outside to the interior of the cell. The Role of Epigenetics in Pharmacologic ActionEpigenetic alterations play a key role in influencing the disease status of an individual. Epigenetics allow a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner to regulate genes through epigenetic mechanisms that switch off gene activity or tune any genetic activation (Stefanska & MacEwan, 2015). Epigenetic regulation of gene activity is important in pharmacologic action as it helps in maintaining normal phenotypic activity of cells. This is important in addressing neurological disorders that affect the nervous system. Epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation help regulate gene expression as well as other biological functions that are connected to certain diseases (Stefanska & MacEwan, 2015). This provides a more effective treatment process for patients with diseases attributed to epigenetic causes. How This Information May Impact The Prescription Process And A Specific Example Of A Situation In Which The Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Must Be Aware Of The Medication’s ActionHaving adequate knowledge in neuroscience can enhance a psychiatric mental health nurse’s ability to understand cognitive development and the nervous system functioning. This helps in selecting the right treatment to address certain problems affecting patients (Angell & Bolden, 2015). This knowledge will impact the prescription process as a psychiatric can understand the actions of certain drugs on the brain and the nervous system. Based on the presenting symptoms, a psychiatrist can also select effective drugs that can be combined with counseling to achieve the desired treatment goals (Angell & Bolden, 2015). An example of a situation where the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action involves treating a client with mental-health related disorders such as post-traumatic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder using epigenetic mechanisms. A nurse needs to be aware of the medication’s actions due to the expected changes attributed to epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression (Angell & Bolden, 2015). ReferencesAngell, B., & Bolden, G. B. (2015). Justifying medication decisions in mental health care: Psychiatrists’ accounts for treatment recommendations. Social science & medicine (1982), 138, 44–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.029Berg, K. A., & Clarke, W. P. (2018). Making Sense of Pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 962–977. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyy071Johnson, K. A., & Lovinger, D. M. (2016). Presynaptic G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Gatekeepers of Addiction?. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 10, 264. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00264Stefanska, B., & MacEwan, D. J. (2015). Epigenetics and pharmacology. British journal of pharmacology, 172(11), 2701–2704. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13136Wulff, H., & Christophersen, P. (2015). Recent developments in ion channel pharmacology. Channels (Austin, Tex.), 9(6), 335. https://doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2015.1077650

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