In a health and social care setting they have policy and producers and legislations to promote health and safety. In a nursery there are many policies and procedures to protect the children there. One of the policies is all visitors must sign in and out and must wear a visitors badge, this is to ensure that the children can identify the staff to the visitors and it also lets other members of staff know that this person is a visitor and is allowed in (only restricted areas, visitors can’t enter offices or be left on their own). Another policy is each child has to have a documented file on foods which they are allergic too and medical history, whether they can have calpol, ibuprofen and antihistamines. If a child has a peanut allergy they must have two epi pens, this is because one of them might not work or if they have used one already. When it’s lunch time the staff must be consider other students on what they can eat, for example a child might only eat hala meat and another child might be vegetarian, therefore cooks must provide food for the other children too, but it must consist of all the same nutrients as children need this for growth and energy. In a nursery there might be only a few members of staff who are qualified in giving children medications, everything the child does throughout the day should be documented from what they eat,nappy changes, bumps and accidents must be documented. This is so if social workers get involved it’s all recorded of what’s happened. Safety in a nursery needs to be taken very seriously, plug sockets must have safety plugs in them so children can stick their fingers in and injure themselves. Stair gates must be in where children aren’t allowed and locked as soon as you walk through one, you need them in as a child could fall down the stairs or enter a room where it is dangerous, eg the kitchen. All medications must be locked away in either a safe or tall cupboard, if a child were to get hold of medication they could choke on them or cause themselves to be poorly. To stop children trapping fingers in the doors and cupboards theres child locks on them, by keeping them locked it prevents from any dangerous equipment falling on them. To keep children safe in a nursery staff must have a DBS check done, this prevents from any abusive people coming in hurting children, even people who are doing placements have to have a DBS check, the child’s safety comes first. Staff must be trained in first aid, they should know CPR and how to help a child when choking, if staff are not trained a child may die, or left with serious brain damage, this is becomes when choking your brain starves from oxygen. Mobile phones and camera safetyAll settings must have policies on the safe use of mobile phones and cameras in the setting. This is to stop people taking inappropriate photographs of children. Key points usually include:Mobile phones should not be used in a room with the children; practitioners should leave mobile phones in their locker or in the staff room. Settings should have a policy requesting that visitors do not use mobile phones in the setting.Only use DESIGNATED CAMERAS to take photographs. These are cameras that are for use in the setting only.Parents are usually asked to give written permission for pictures tobe taken of their children. Some settings will allow parents to take photographs of their own children at family events, such as sports day, but there are requirements that these are not shared on social media. Other settings will have a policy that strictly no photographs are takenData protection act Datais personal information held in your setting. The government clearly states the legal requirements regarding how data should be used, for what reasons, how long it should be kept and how it should be handled and stored.In a nursery setting date is kept in locked files, if these files ever come out only managers can access them and as soon as a file is finished with it must go straight back in, otherwise it could get into the wrong hands.The four legislations that should be observed in early years settings are:1 Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 – This Act sets out the duties of employers to keep people safe while at work. It states that all work settings, including early years settings, must have a Health and Safety Policy. It also tells employees about their responsibility to follow safe working practices, to co-operate with their employers and to ensure the safety of others, including children, staff and visitors.2 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013 – If someone in the early years setting suffers a serious injury, has a reportable disease or there is a dangerous incident at work, then this must be reported through RIDDOR. Accident and incident records must be completed.3 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 – There may be lots of hazardous substances in your setting, such as cleaning fluids, washing up liquid, correction fluid; COSHH regulations require employers to ensure these items are stored and used safely, assessments are made and information is on hand should something go wrong.4 EYFS Statutory Framework – This document sets legal standards for staff to child ratios, safety and suitability of premises, environment and equipment, risk assessment and outings.Food safety act- Nurseries and other food places must ensure that temperatures in the fridges are at the right temperature so bacteria is killed. Food must be heated at the right temperature for the right number of minutes, for example if rice is not warmed up properly it holds a lot of bacteria which causes illnesses. When dealing with food you must ensure you use different chopping boards for different meats, Red Raw Meat,Blue Raw Fish,Yellow Cooked Meat,Brown Vegetables,Green Salads & Fruit,White Bakery & Dairy. Preventing bacteria from being transferred to different foods is an important food safety practice. This is one way to reduce cross-contamination is to use different chopping boards for different foods. Raw food must not be near cooked food, bacteria from raw food can contaminate cold cooked food, and the bacteria can multiply to dangerous levels if the food is not cooked thoroughly again. Once you have finished with a surface make sure the surface is cleaned properly, it is essential to get rid of harmful bacteria and stop them spreading to food. Work surfaces and equipment should be washed regularly and disinfected between tasks. Disinfection can be used to destroy bacteria from surfaces, taps and sinks. Food should date checked, food should be checked as you could give a child out of date yoghurt or piece of meat which could cause them to have an upset stomach. Food must be cooked thoroughly especially chicken and pork, due to the possible presence of bacteria such as salmonella or campylobacter. Eating raw or undercooked pork infected with the parasitic worms, Trichinella spiralis, can lead to trichinosis. First aidThis policy tells you what to do if a child has an accident or becomes seriously ill. You can learn about basic first-aid procedures later on in this unit.Food hygieneFood hygiene policies cover all aspects of storing and preparing food. The policies help to ensure food is kept free from contamination, preventing dangerous levels of bacteria from developing.Emergency evacuationThis procedure tells you about evacuating the premises in an emergency. Information about how and when to evacuate the setting are discussed in more detail further on in this unit.Safe moving and handlingIf you are required to lift and move equipment, you should follow these techniques to ensure both your own and others’ safety.The purpose of risk assessmentRisk assessment is an important way of checking that your setting is safe. It is a legal requirement for settings with more than five employees to have a written risk assessment that is updated regularly and when needed, for example, if your setting buys a new climbing frame or a child with additional needs joins the setting.A risk assessment lists the potential hazards in your setting so that measures can be put in place to lessen the risk of accidents and harm.Hygiene and safety checksYou should regularly check that the environment is safe for children. This includes removing any broken or faulty toys or resources immediately. Spillages should be mopped up, dirty surfaces should be cleaned and trip hazards removed.SafetyUse of safety equipmentSafety equipment can be used to help reduce the risk of harm to children in your setting, for instance, safety gates, window catches, door catches and cooker guards. Look around your setting to see which safety equipment is used.Animal and plant safetySettings should not have pets that might bite or scratch. Children should be taught to wash hands after touching pets. Remember, some children have allergies to animals or fur.Plants, both indoors and outside, can be hazardous if eaten (poisonous, choking). Some plants are prickly (hawthorn hedging); others can sting or cause a rash (stinging nettles).Water safetyChildren can drown in just a few centimetres of water, and it can happen very quickly. Check for any rain water that may have gathered outside and remove it. You must always supervise children during water play and empty the equipment when the session is over.Safe outdoor spacesOutside areas should always be checked before children use them to ensure there are no potential hazards. Check for:unwanted objects thrown or blown over the fence, for example glass bottles, syringes, cigarettes, plastic bagsbroken fences or gates left openwet and slippery equipment and surfacesbroken equipment and apparatusanimal faeces (especially in uncovered sand pits).Outing safetyOutings can provide exciting and enriching experiences for children. However, taking children out of the setting poses its own risks, so take time to read your setting’s Outings Policy and be aware of the safety measures in place. It is good practice to:make a risk assessment of the venue before the outingmake sure all parents have given written permission for their child totake part; take contact telephone numbers with you for the parents ofchildren involvedmake sure that staff to child ratios are met and children are safelysupervised at all timestake a first-aid kit, your setting’s designated mobile phone, children’smedication, drinks, spare nappies/clothestake a register of the children and make regular headcountsuse pushchairs and reins safely. Hold hands with children when needed,for example, when crossing roads.