Alexis CoxCOMS 130McDanielInformative Speech OutlineVaccinesTopic: Vaccines General Purpose: To informSpecific Purpose: To inform the audience about vaccines and how they affect the bodyThesis Statement: There are many opinions about vaccines and the role they play in society, and it is important that we take steps to become educated on vaccines and the positives and negatives of how they affect the body. Introduction Attention Getter: Right before I left for college, I had to visit my family doctor and get some booster shots to the vaccines I already had. When I got there, I started panicking and when they checked my heart rate and blood pressure it was pretty high, and I told the nurse it was because I was so afraid to get my shots that day. She ended up coming back with the shots and told me, “You shouldn’t feel a thing, these are the needles we use when the infants come and get their shots.” Current vaccine recommendations are for children to receive 19 injections in their first two years of life. These vaccines are responsible for providing immunity against various diseases such as: Hepatitis B, Rotavirus, diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP), Polio, Influenza, Measles, mumps, rubella, meningitis, and Hepatitis A. Relevance Statement: Vaccines are an important part of public health and have drawn attention recently. I believe that providing people with information on vaccines will help us all understand the attention it has attracted in the media. Thesis Statement: There are many opinions about vaccines and the role they play in society, and it is important that we take steps to become educated on vaccines and the positives and negatives of how they affect the body.Credibility Statement: As a member of the healthcare community, I have been exposed to many different vaccines and I wanted to become more informed on what they do, how they affect the body, and the current recommendations. Preview of Main Points: Today I am going to be discussing vaccinations and how they affect the body. First, I will be talking about the history of vaccines and what they are, and then I will go into vaccines for children and the recommendations made, and finish with modern statistics. (Transition: First, I would like to talk about the basics of vaccines.)BodyMain Point 1: Vaccines have a long history in the United States, going back to 1796 when Dr. Edward Jenner discovered the first smallpox inoculation (Bronfin 2008). Supporting Material: Vaccines are a product that stimulates a person’s immune system to a certain disease and protecting that person from that disease.Evidence: Vaccines are made using weakened or dead pieces of the disease organism. This allows us to gain active immunity which is when the body produces antibodies to a given disease. Passive immunity is another form. A good example of this is when you get chicken pox, you never get it again because your body gained passive immunity when you had the illness. Warrant: The main delivery form is through injection which I think is the worst part about getting vaccines. I don’t know about you guys, but I have a serious fear of needles and it makes me pretty anxious. Supporting Material: The process that follows getting a vaccine can be called immunization. This is when a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease. Evidence: The U.S. Department of Health Services explains that vaccines help the immune system fight off the germ more effectively and faster. It allows the body to remember the germ so it can attack it if the germ ever comes back again. (Transition Statement: Now that we have discussed what vaccines are and what immunity is, let’s talk about the recommendations for vaccines.)Main Point 2: Vaccines are recommended for children in order to protect them from various diseases. Supporting material: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) is a group of health experts that is in charge of developing recommendations on the vaccination schedule (Vaccine Information Statements). This schedule is designed to protect children before an exposure to serious diseases and infections. Evidence: Vaccines are monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, known as the FDA. Before vaccines can be administered, they undergo clinical testing, and the results are then evaluated to determine if they are safe to be administered. Evidence: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is used by the FDA and the CDC to collect data on any adverse effects that may occur after being vaccinated (U.S Department of Health Services). Warrant: Reporting adverse effects is important to the constant safety of vaccines and to ensure effectiveness. Supporting Material: Children receive vaccinations from birth to the age and continue to receive vaccinations into their adult life. The continued vaccination contributes to community immunity or herd immunity. Evidence: Germs travel through communities rapidly and can make many people sick. The presence of vaccines hinders the ability for the germs to travel from person to person, which in turn prevents the entire community from getting sick. We have all seen at school or in community living such as the dorms and Greek life where one person becomes sick and slowly one by one all of the other people get sick as well. Community immunity is very important for individuals who are unable to get vaccines. These are individuals who have certain diseases or people who are immune compromised. (Transition Statement: Now that we have talked about vaccines for children, we will talk about some statistics.)Main Point 3: Vaccines have been developed over the years and we have seen a serious decline in the rate of these diseases. Supporting material: In the United States the measles vaccinates against the measles. This vaccine is commonly referred to as MMR and is administered during childhood. Evidence: The CDC states that prior to a vaccine hundreds of people died each year. Now most physicians in the United States have never seen a case of measles (Vaccine Information Statements).Supporting Material: In 1921 there was not a vaccine for diphtheria and over 15,000 Americans died from the disease that year. Now only two cases have been reported to the CDC or FDA between the years of 2004 and 2014. (Transition Statement: Now we know more about vaccines and the statistics supporting them, let’s review.)ConclusionReview of main points: Today I threw a lot of information at you but the three main points were what vaccines are and how they affect the body, the immunization recommendations, and statistics about immunizations. Restate thesis: There are many opinions about vaccines and the role they play in society, and it is important that we take steps to become educated on vaccines and the positives and negatives of how they affect the body.Closing statement: I hope this speech was able to help you guys understand vaccines and what they are. Vaccines are an important part of public health and are subject to tremendous scrutiny and misinformation. I hope I was able to clear some of that up today and I really hope none of you are as afraid of needles as I am. ReferencesU.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006, October 11). Vaccines.gov. Retrieved from https://www.vaccines.gov/getting/for_parents/index.htmlVaccine Information Statements (VISs). (2018, October 12). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/index.htmlMaglione, M. A., Das, L., Raaen, L., Smith, A., Chari, R., Newberry, S., … Gidengil, C. (2014). Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 134(2), 325–337. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1079Bronfin, D. R. (2008). Childhood Immunization Controversies: What Are Parents Asking? The Ochsner Journal, 8(3), 151–156.