INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGERSINTRODUCTION:Health care analytics is a generic term and is viewed differently by different stakeholders, for instance:For healthcare practitioners, who are interested in clinical analytics, it can help in personalizing treatment, monitor health, consult remotely and utilize predictive health analytics for decision making.For government, unified data on patients can help identify patterns and analyze trends at regional, national, or disease-specific levels in a population. It can also help the government to develop health policy, interventions, programs for specific demographics prepare, and respond in healthcare emergencies.For healthcare providers, like labs and hospitals, healthcare analytics entails structuring data to its longitudinal form, which can help in mapping patients’ health journey, and contribute to improved healthcare outcomes.For pharmaceutical companies, including their various internal divisions such as R&D, sales and marketing, the benefits of advanced analytics artificial intelligence and machine learning can be utilized in drug discoveries, market assessment, brand intelligence, customer outreach, and engagement.HEALTH ANALYTICS:Deploying a healthcare analytics suite can help healthcare providers improve upon several areas of operations. One major area where using analytics can optimize efforts hospital and foundation donations and grants.Historically, healthcare delivery organizations already have been applying descriptive analytics to cases. Using query and reporting tools and technologies, health care workers have gathered information on past performance, enabling classification and categorization of typically structured data. Now, data warehouses merge disparate data to create health dashboards, clinical data repositories and individual patient views. In the long term, the same entities will utilize prescriptive analytics to forecast possible outcomes and allow providers to make proactive decisions. Too, discovery analytics will help healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies, and researchers identify unknown diseases and medical conditions and seek new or alternative treatments and drugs. Examples of health analytics applications abound in the literature. IBM categorizes these applications in terms of advancing patient safety, improving clinical outcomes, and promoting wellness and disease management. Patient safety issues arise mainly from medical errors and result in increased patient deaths and financial and legal consequences for the providers. Structured as well as unstructured data reside in patient charts, physician notes, handwritten prescriptions and elsewhere. Health analytics have the potential to facilitate early alerts on adverse episodes and minimize infections or outbreaks; allow physicians, nurses and others identify patients at risk for readmission; and anticipate medication allergies and thus prevent adverse drug reactions. Duke University Health System, for example, uses drill-down analytics of millions of clinical records to identify near-miss cases and develop predictive analytics that flag possibly high-risk future events automatically. Another example of the practical use of health analytics is in the neo-natal intensive care unit at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children. There, nurses chart a baby’s heart rate every hour. A baby’s heart beats almost 120 times a minute, and it is the pattern of those beats over time that provides signals as to whether something is wrong. With the help of IBM’s Watson system, live streams of heartbeats are analysed. Watson identified patterns revealing signs of infection 24 hours before the babies showed any visible symptoms. In premature babies, advancing treatment by as little as an hour can be life saving.CONCLUSION:In addition to enhancing the quality of health care delivery, reducing medical errors and improving patient safety, by using health analytics, health care providers can contain costs, comply with mandatory reporting requirements, meet benchmarks and standards, monitor patient satisfaction, evaluate physician performance and offer incentives and promote health talent management. Furthermore, health analytics capabilities can facilitate dynamic fraud detection (e.g., insurance claims) and assist in behaviour modification to improve healthier lifestyle choices. Although in its early stages, health analytics has great potential to improve outcomes and quality of healthcare and reduce costs of healthcare delivery.2. INTRODUCTION: In the past few years, the Indian dairy industry has received a tremendous boost through technology-driven products, services and solutions, the credit for which deservingly goes to agricultural and dairy start-ups.Some of the technologies are already in practice in India, albeit the adoption is still quite low while many others are yet to penetrate the industry. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that technology is playing a key role in modernising the Indian dairy industrySince these boutique farms already have the cattle and the capital, the only thing required to make it a profitable business is the implementation of technology. It is amply clear that the demand already exists. There are certain aspects of farm management which if handled through technology can reduce costs and make operations efficient. A few of them are:The Health of the CattleGetting a high yield from cattle depends entirely on their health. While tracking the health of a larger number of cattle at a farm can get tough, there are trackers in the market that work the way smart watches work. These trackers monitor the heart rate and other vital signs of the cow and analyses its health. Some of these can also track the heat period, and other aspects, just by analysing their movement patterns. An overview of such health reports are available with the vets who help in quick response and action.Robotic Milking MachinesTraditionally, cows have always been milked manually by hands. This is not only a time-consuming activity but also has labour cost associated with, thereby increasing the price of milk.The robotic milking machines have arms or cups with sensors that can be attached individually to cows’ teats. The sensors can detect whether the cow or which of its teat is ready for milking or not. Once the milking starts, the machines can also identify impurities, colour and quality of milk. If the milk is not fit for human consumption, it is diverted to a separate container. The machines can also automatically clean and sanitize the teats once the task is over.Field to Yield Impact Fodder plays a very important role in milk production, as it has a direct impact on the quality and taste of milk. The feed constitutes the major cost of a dairy’s operation. Hence, it is very important that the feed is of the best quality, to ensure a greater yield in terms of both quantity and quality. Milk processors in India pay the producers based on the fat level – higher the fat content, higher the pay-out. These different aspects of the feed and the yield have to be documented by the dairy farms in order to get the required information and a better understanding of the feed to yield impact. This is possible only via a collective effort by the dairies, which can happen over a period of time when more and more dairy farms become digitized. It is something that we can hope to see in the near future.Milk FreshnessMilk is a highly perishable product. In spite of treating it with pasteurization, freezing and preservation processes, it has a tendency to go stale. Millions of tons of milk turns stale before timely consumption and goes waste. Efforts are also being consistently made to increase the shelf life of milk without adding additives or preservatives.Technology is now making it possible to detect the freshness of milk and store it for a longer period of time. In India IIT Guhuwati scientists have developed a smartphone-app aided paper sensor kit that can test the freshness of milk and inform how well it has been pasteurized. This kit can come quite handy in large kitchens, milk collection centres and milk bars.Product Lifecycle TrackingSince the margins for milk processors are higher in case of value-added products, tracking the lifecycle of milk, to the market and the quantity that comes back – within expiry range – can make a big difference. Milk that gets returned from the market while still within the expiry range can further be converted to products like, ghee, paneer, buttermilk, curd, etc. which reduces the losses significantly and also adds to the margin. Enabling tracking of the product lifecycle, like tracking the retailers who are carrying products which are about to reach expiry and collecting them in a timely manner, through an alert system can make great difference.Last Mile Delivery:Since the milk producers and processors both play the scale game with low margins, saving costs on every front and increasing efficiency are very important factors. Last mile delivery includes dropping off milk either to the retailer or to the house hold .Tracking of logistics and route optimization along with temperature reporting are some simple options to do the same. In many cases, the pouches develop leaks, while the bottles and the crates used get damaged, leading to losses. These losses are not entirely avoidable, but understanding the root cause or identifying the problem areas can help in corrective measures being taken. The first step to solving a problem is recognizing that there is one.CONCLUSION :For those who choose to remain in operation without knowing when prices will turn around, the only option is to streamline their businesses in an attempt to boost their bottom lines. Fortunately, a growing number of dairy tech start-ups are developing technologies to address some of dairy farmers’ biggest pain points including labour shortages, disease (especially mastitis), herd identification, antibiotic overuse, and performance issues. a) INTRODUCTION: While the definition of a smart city is still evolving, a few things have become clear: Smart cities leverage information and communication technologies to enhance service levels, citizen well-being, sustainability, and economic development. Smart city technology can make cities more effective and efficient, which is necessary given the projected rapid growth in urban populations over the next few decades.Here are some of the benefits of a smart city:Efficient distribution of resources:Smart cities have an overall better organization and infrastructure. All the sectors are involved in a complex interplay that simplifies everyday life for people who live and work in the city. The cameras at the bus stops can identify how many people are waiting to board; the sensors on the approaching bus know how many people ride the bus at any given point in time, and how many people are currently on the bus.The combination of the information from the bus stop and the bus then leads to the city’s response. There can then be redistribution of people and buses if it appears that the current course of events will not be efficient. Enhanced citizen and government engagement: Citizens today expect their cities to deliver robust, user-friendly digital services. Collaboration tools, modern and intuitive websites, mobile applications, self-service portals, and convenient online accounts have become the standard in many facets of life, and citizens expect no less from their city. Expanding digital services in communities make smart cities a more attractive place for residents to live and promote a connected citizen experience.Speed of implementation:Still on governments and policies, every country with a democracy can testify to the fact that it takes quite a while for policies, or any sort of new development to get implemented. Smart cities overcome these problems very easily. Because the points that need improvements have already been identified, the implementation becomes easier. All the automation, analytics, and sensors contribute to making it easier for most of the changes to be implemented remotely, creating a seamless flow of change from conception to execution.Safer communities:A smart city is a safer city. Leveraging technology advances and pursuing private/public partnerships help reduce criminal activity. Technologies such as license plate recognition, gunshot detectors, connected crime centres, next-generation 911, and body cameras all give law enforcement an edge while on the job. As they say that a coin has both sides there are advantages and disadvantages of a smart city,In my opinion a smart city is more a boon than bane if we utilize the benefits in a more proper and useful way. In that way a smart city enhances and enriches the growth of people and the world at large.The greatest fear of those of us that believe in this concept is that it will be used for evil and not for good. This will be detrimental to progress.Monitoring public use of facilities such as libraries, community centres, waste management, and other public locations with the intention of improving infrastructure can invite abuse. We need policies and safeguards, along with advanced security and digital defence systems, to ensure the long-term privacy and safety of urban residents and visitors alike.There will be those that abuse this power. As pointed out, considering the dark side, networkable devices and smart city policies have great potential for abuse. These uses need to be tracked and the public educated. In order to maintain public support, it will be important for decision makers to stay involved in engagement activities.b) INTRODUCTION: Urban population is on the rise worldwide and smart city development projects are harnessing the power of the Internet of Things to develop more intelligent, efficient, and sustainable solutions. However, digital security investments in smart cities are severely lagging thus seeding the future vulnerabilities of the ecosystem.Smart cities are comprised of a highly complex, interdependent network of devices, systems, platforms, and users. Smart energy, utilities, water and wastage, parking and automotive, industrial and manufacturing, building automation, e-government and telemedicine, surveillance and public safety are just some of the verticals that vendors and governments must secure.Manipulation:Hackers could accomplish “simultaneous traffic tie-ups on key city roads by taking control of traffic control infrastructure – enough to create gridlock and delay law-enforcement teams from accessing the real scene of a crime.”Disasters:By causing water level gauges, radiation detectors, wind speed sensors, and other disaster detection and alarm systems to report incorrect data, an attacker could potentially cause an evacuation as a distraction. Alternatively, a city could suffer far worse damage as a result of the delayed response to external threats, like radiationPanic:Even today, when the world has not seen the full potential of the connected world, customers are reluctant to give out their information to businesses and in cases where they do, it very often under the misconception that businesses keep their information well protected. Imagine a world where your private data was accessible to just about everyone, the government, your local grocer, your friends and worst of all, to the several hackers out there. With all the interconnectivity, smart cities take it one step ahead by giving people the fear of always being controlled by a superior entity. One can only imagine the path it paves for all the chaos and pandemonium when smart cities fully come into existence.