IntoductionErikson looked at the psychosocial theory of development He was influenced in

IntoductionErikson looked at the psychosocial theory of development. He was influenced in his work by Freud, although Freud was an ID psychologist Erikson was an EGO psychologist. Erikson based his theory on the role of culture and society and the conflicts that take place in the Ego itself. Whereas Freud looked at the conflict between the ID and the super Ego. Erikson also considered what impact the external factors had on a child such as their parents and society.Erikson Believed the ego developed as the human being successfully resolved crisis, he thought that this involved establishing a sense of trust in others, a sense of identity in society and by helping the next generation prepare for the future. (www.simplypsychology.org 2008)Erikson looked at the five stages developed by Freud but then extended on this to add a further three stages these would cover the entire life span of the human being although Erikson still put a vast amount of emphasis on the adolescent stage has he thought that this was the stage when a person developed their identity.Erikson just like Freud and many others maintained that the personality was developed in a predetermined stages and these stages were time related according to Erikson every human being needed to pass through the eight stages over there entire life cycle and each stage was built upon from the previous stage with each stage being a struggle between two emotional opposites The eight stagesTrust Vs Mistrust (age 0-1) a sense of trust is achieved if the infant receives emotional warmth and their needs are being met by their caregivers. If this is inadequate then this leads to mistrust. This links closely to attachment theory as proposed by Bowlby (19xx)Autonomy vs doubt (1-3) to encourage the child in developing their skills which builds confidence and a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. If they mocked they will be riddled with doubt and lack confidence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.Initiative vs Inadequacy (or Guilt) (age 3-6) the child is increasing their skills and begin to assert control and power over their actions children who are supported to initiate activities will have their own sense of initiative reinforced. If this is not encouraged then they will develop a sense of guilt or inadequacy.Industry vs Inferiority (age 6-12) further explanation is given belowIdentity vs Role confusion (age 12-18)Intimacy vs Isolation (age 18 – 40)Generativity vs Self-absorption (middle age)Integrity vs Despair (60+)Poverty has a massive impact on the above stages but due to the restraints placed on this essay I am unable to cover how this impacts all of the above stages so will be concentrating on the Industry versus Inferiority stage.This is the stage where a child is encouraged in their activities and through this their sense of industry will be promoted. If a child’s activities are dismissed this can instil a sense of inferiority in the child. Children who live in poverty have an increased chance of behavioural and emotional problems, these include aggression and difficulty getting along with their peers, and this also includes depression and anxiety. Poverty for a child’s parent can mean that they are living in substandard housing, poor neighbourhoods and food insecurity this can put them under chronic stress, depression and marital status therefore they are not able to provide the same resources as what a child from an affluent family would be able to provide These are all linked to poor social and emotional outcomes for children and this could mean that a child with fewer resources would be less likely to pass this stage, however this is not always the case as schools may make up for the lack of resource that a parent can provide through offering breakfast clubs and encouraging a child to do activities in school and by referring a child with emotional difficulties to the right agency to help. ( www.apa.org 2019)Bronfenbrenner is said to be one of the leading authorities in the field of development psychology. It most important theory was the ecological systems that went through four stages these are the Micro System this looks at in a child’s relationships, interactions and there immediate surroundings and something that they would interact with on a daily basis. This system would be the relationship between an individual and his or her parent’s siblings or school. The Meso system is the second stage which looks at the interactions between the characters of the Microsystem. This could be the relationship between the child’s family and the school in order for this to be considered part if this system it needs to be a direct interaction between two aspects of the microsystem and therefore as an influence on the child’s development. The Exo system is the third layer. This contains elements of the microsystem which do not affect the child directly may have an impact indirectly such as if a parent was to lose their job, this would affect their child indirectly such as the financial strain or increased parental stress. The Macro system is the fourth stage this encompasses cultural and societal beliefs and the programming that influences a child’s development. He later added the fifth stage which was the Chronosystem. (www.learning-theories.com 2017)What is significant about the ecological approach is that it refers to the biology and the interdependency of living things in the environment. Since social workers take a perspective which considers the person in the context of their environment they can use an ecological approach and build on the understanding of the systems theory and look at a way a child is influenced by their environment it also helps practitioners to consider a true balance of influences which are likely to play a part in the development of any young child,Within the microsystems of the immediate environment such as the home, peer group or school can either facilitate or impede developmentNeighbourhoods microsystem construct are linked to a child developmental outcome. Children who are raised in poor neighbourhoods are more likely of having a negative outcome, these include delinquency, mental health issues, conduct disorders and delays in cognitive and social development. Children growing up in the poorest neighbour hoods are going to have limited resources compared to children who are living in an affluent area. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological model of child development uses systems theory to emphasise human development within an interactive social context of multiple levels. The most emphasis is on the child’s microsystem, the family and the corresponding daily activities, roles and interpersonal relationships within the family. The child’s development is influenced by other external systems such as schools and nursery’s and then the interactions between the microsystems (the mesosystem). Families experiencing stress relating to poverty, housing, employment or relationships may have little energy available to attend to the nutritional needs of their children especially when feeding itself may be stressful or unsatisfying. Many families with children who are failing to thrive may be eligible for public assistance such as food banks, benefits and social housing however there are barriers in place such as lack of knowledge or difficulty in complying with bureaucratic requirements that stop them gaining access to available services.Conclusion

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