Introduction to Human WellBeingThe task given was to compare Australia to a

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Introduction to Human Well-BeingThe task given was to compare Australia to a developing country, and explore the global, national and local differences in wellbeing. The information I will be informing you about is the comparison between Australia and Kiribati. Kiribati, which is recommended apart of the gilbert islands, is one of the smallest countries in the world. Located in the Oceania and pacific region, Kiribati is made up of 32 atolls, dispersed over 3.5million km2 of ocean. With a total land area of 810km2, Kiribati is home to approximately 116,398 (world bank) people. However, Australia, is counted one of the largest islands in the world with a vast surface area of 7.692 million km2 and an estimated population of 24.6million. (world bank)Wellbeing indicators To begin with, we are going to discuss the well being indicators and explore what they are and how there measured. Well being indicators can be qualitative or quantitative measures that amount people’s; living conditions, life expectancy, environment, economic performance, political sustainability, health, technology, security and safety and social relationships. However different aspects of indicators are measured and are compared by other countries depending on how people view “Human well being.” The Human Development index (HDI), Happy Planet Index (HPI) and Legatum Prosperity Index (LPI) all measure different factors of human well being, which also governs a country’s stance and ranks which is compared to the rest of the world. Human Development Index (HDI)The Human Development Index, was developed to accentuate that people and their capabilities should be the criteria to determine the development of the country instead of the economic growth. The HDI measures, an average achievement in different areas of human development along with life expectancy, education and gross national income of a country. (GNI per capita).(Graph): ADD GNI compare Established on the United Nations Development Program, Human Development reports, Australia is recorded 3rd in the world considering the wellbeing factors, while Kiribati is ranked 134th. Just by the numbers the rankings have an immense difference. Australia is an extremely wealthy and a sustainable country, access to; education, healthcare facilities, maintainable employment, advanced technology, resources, agriculture and farming land are all available. 22.9% of children and adults have the opportunity to get an education, 83 years of life expectancy from birth and an estimate of 61.1% of the population is employed, allowing to support a steady income for themselves or their family. However Kiribati’s opportunities for kids and adults to get an education drops to 12.9%. Along with a 16 year gap between the life expectancy. Access to communication, internet and electronic devices falls to 13.7% compared to Australia which has 88.22% access to those privileges. Kiribati rank of 134th on the HDI indicator is awfully low compared to australia ranking of 3rd, unfortunately due to an extensive amount of health risks, environmental disadvantages, climate change and economic exports Kiribati is a very wishing country that relies on other countries for help to develop more opportunities for their people. Legatum Prosperity Index (LPI)The next topic is legatum prosperity index. The legatum prosperity index and the human development index measure quite similar indicators. According to the Legatum Institute “The Legatum Institute exists to promote policies that create pathways from poverty to prosperity.” (Brien, 2019)Traditionally the LPI was measured by a countries appromate GDP( income) to determine the wellbeing and succus of a country. However the LPI measures not only a countries GDP it include other including; economy, governance, education, scerity, health, personal freedom, social capita and natural environment. The prosperity index score is resolved by weighing the nine pillars. Considering these nine pillars Australia is ranked 13th in the world on the LPI. In every category that the LPI measures Australia succeeded a higher ranking. Recorded on the legatum website australia rankings for economic perforce was 28th, business government 9th, governance 12th, education 8th, health 12th, safe and security 22nd, personal freedom 14th, social capita 2nd and natural environment 17th. Unfortunately, Kiribati does not appear on the legatum prosperity index due to how poor the country is. However it does have some pillars or factor that can be compared. Kiribati’ economic performance is extremely low, leading kiribati into severe debt. The health of the people and the country is very poor and unhygienic. Kiribati has a high occurrence of nutrition, respiratory, liver, diarrhoeal and cardiovascular diseases which all have a possible outcome of death if not treated, but kiribati can’t afford the proper health care because of the economic and geographical disadvantages. There is a shortage in medical nurses and doctors and increase rates of poverty resulting in healthcare services to be free of charge. Another important factor is the natural environment. Climate change is real and is affecting our world fast. The highest point of land Kiribati is only 6 feet (1.8cm) above sea level due to the sea level rises from climate change. The sea level rise has affected kiribati so much that kiribati and other small islands had to purchase land and seek refuge. In 2014 the president Anote Tong had made the decision to purchase 20 km2 of one of Fiji islands Vanua Levu. Kiribati had to take action. So if kiribati was scored on the LPi, most certainly kiribati will be on the bottom and if Australia scores were to be compared the same reasons would be discussed to why kiribati had a poor LPI. Happy Planet Index (HPI)The happy planet index measures the wellbeing of countries across the world and declares the achievement of a long sustainable happy lives. The happy planet index is calculated by combining four factors. These are wellbeing, life expectancy and inequality of outcome and ecological footprint . the first three elements are then multiplied and divided by the ecological footprint to finally achieve the happy plant score for a country. Australia’s happy planet score is 21.2 and is ranked 105th out of 140 other countries. Australia’s life expectancy score is 82.1 years of life, 7.2/10 of wellbeing, 8% inequality and a 9.3 score for the ecological footprint. Yet again, Kirkabti is not registered on the Happy Planet Index. For a country not to achieve a standard of a score shows how poor and unstable kiribati is and they need our help. This also draws attention and realization to compare australia, thats is ranked 105th out of 140 and kiribati that has no rank at all. However, other countries such as Bangladesh, Thailand, Vanuatu and Columbia are similar to Kiribati development leval all have high HPI ratings. This data could be interpreted as even though a country is a developing nation it is still a happy and content nation with their economic, political and social status. Surispingling vanuatu has a HPI score of 40.6 and a rank of 4th out of 140 other countries and compared to australia’s it twenty times more happy. . Although vanutus wellbeing, life expectancy, inequality and ecological footprint ranks and scores fall below austrlias. But to compare australia and vanuatu welling and happiness the data shows that austrlias has high rankings and scores but isn’t a very happy country while vanuatu is the opposite and has a very high happy planet score however they do had poor rankings. In further research of other small nations that may not score high HPI indicators ha kiribati would have standard happiness scores but the factors measures would be fairly low. Task 2: Economic performance Australia: Total exports= $244 billion Total imports= $200 billion Trade profit= $44 billion Kiribati: Total exports=$51.5 million Total imports= $92.4 million Trade Deficit= – $40.9 millionAustralia’s and kiribatis imports and exports are very distinct. Kiribati worth of exports is $51.4million primarily products like seafood and a small amount of agriculture. Kiribati has a limited amount of exports to offer other countries due to environmental conditions. Although Australia makes $244 billion worth of exports which are mainly mineral products due to the strong mining industry Australia has. Australia’s common exports include; 54% of mineral products, 13% of precious metals, 5.7% animal products, 5.6% vegetable products and 5.4% of metals. The remaining 16.3% is composed of chemical products, foodstuffs, machines, textiles and more. The exports of minerals and precious metals are the main sellers. Australia contains rich grounds for mining where iron, coal, zinc, copper and even gold are found and easily brought from other countries. Compared to kiribati that has a small land area, kiribati is very limited of there range of exports. Kiribati’s exports composed of 79% of animals products, 15% of vegetable products and 3.9% of animal and vegetable bi- products. The remaining 2.1% is made up of machines, metals, foodstuffs and more. 79% of animal exports, mostly seafood, are what kiribati sells to keep their country alive. Australia has more geographic advantages, where they can provide and offer more exports. These include rich soil, successful mining industries where tradeable minerals are found, vast land area for livestock and agriculture farming, advanced technology, materials and resources to build and develop the country more. Where as kiribati doesn’t have those resources to support their country and is very reliant on australia for our help. Task 3: Government/Laws UNEQUAL WORLD Australia engages in the Constitutional monarchy (where a sovereign has the authority and governs by written laws or a constitution.) Federal monarchy ( federation of states with a single monarch which has eminence over the federation) and Parliamentary system ( a system of democratic governance and legitimacy form an elected legislature.) The current prime minister of Australia is Scott Morrison who won the federal election between his party the Liberals and the Labour party. In previous elections the Liberal and Labour parties are the main and common opponents for the austrlian ferals elections and have campaigned for their positions in the austrlian government. Australia has a stable government and has a diverse range of leaders and misters for the population to vote for, compared to other countries where the people have no choice or limited for political voting. On the other hand, Kiribati governance is a Republic (parliamentary democracy.) and the current president of Kiribati is Taneti Mamau who replaced Anote Tong in 2016….. Task 4: InfrastructureEducation Education in Kiribati is free and compulsory for ages 6-14. Primary education for children includes; grades from 1-6 and junior secondary school which includes 7-9. There are a small amount of primary schools on inhabited islands and most secondary schools are located on more developed island were travelling students that attended can live at the schools. St joseph college and Steve Whitmee High School accommodate for their students across kiribati who have passed primary and are going into the tertiary level of learning in the capital of kiribati, tarawa. Advanced education is expanding and giving opportunities to students to travel to Fiji to attend University of the South pacific.Kiribati recognises the importance of education to the citizens, providing the relevant level of education to an approximate of 24,000 children. Compared to australia that has endless education facilities. Schooling in Australia is compulsory up to the age of 16. Children can begin school at age 5 and go forth until they are 18. Australia’s school education includes preschool, preparatory (kindergarten), primary school, secondary school (high school), college, university and tafe. All education levels are delivered in various environments including; public, private, faith based and people with special needs. Austrlias has an estimate of 9,477 schools dispersed throughout the states compared to kiribati that has a total of 134 schools. The education curriculum for Australia states that it is compulsory for students to learn the academic subjects which are english, mathematics, science and physical health and education. The government of kiribati focus on the same academic subjects as well as the english language and their own cultural practices (dancing and singing.) HealthcareKiribati’s healthcare is horrifyingly serve. Functioning medical centre would be offered to kiribati however due to geographical disadvantages and their economic performance, kiribati cannot support quality services. Kiribati has an approximant of 85 health centers located on most outer islands and a referral hospliat