IntroductionBefore we start our assignment we like to thank Professional Counselling Mr. Peter Wong. As he gives us some knowledge about depression and some scientific term about psychology. He is the writer of a research about The Use of Humor in Counselling Among Malaysia.Depression is a mood disorder that affects one’s thoughts, feeling, and functionality in a persistently disturbed emotional state. Depression can be broken down to many different types according to its causes and symptoms. Some of the many types of depressions are Major Depression, Persistent Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Psychotic Depression, Peripartum (Postpartum) Depression, Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), ‘Situational’ Depression, Atypical Depression. Although depression is a fairly common disorder in our current society, it may lead to danger if it’s not treated. Individuals with depression are mainly characterized by being in a negative mood, having no interest in anything, and getting no pleasure from activities that won’t go away in a short period of time. It is a normal part of our life that we go through some ups and downs being human in this world full of challenges. Despite that, depression is not just a temporary change in mood or a weakness. One may feel sad, angry, irritated, anxious, restless, agitated, empty, hopeless, worthless, tired, detached, pain mentally and maybe physically as well in a never-ending-loop. Some depression symptoms may also affect the person’s daily lives like insomnia or excessive sleepiness, feeling demotivated and worthless, and extreme diet changes and affects one’s weight drastically. A person with depression can’t really control these overwhelming negativity in their mind. Hence, it may also lead to dangerous acts like self-harm and suicide attempts or turning to drugs and alcohol to escape these never-ending negativity that’s eating them up on the inside. There are several possible causes of depression. They can range from biological like the chemical changes in our brain to circumstantial like events in life. Some rather common causes of depression includes having a family history of depression, childhood trauma, the frontal lobe of the brain is less active, stressful events and substance abuse. Surprisingly, many people may never learn the cause of their depression. Thankfully, depression is among the most treatable of mental disorders. But, depression is considered a serious medical condition, and it can get worse without proper treatment. Patients with depression may be given medication, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy by a doctor. Medications like anti-depressants may be prescribed to help modify the patient’s brain chemistry. Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy or psychological therapy, is a general term for treating depression by talking about your condition and related issues with a mental health professional. If the patient hasn’t responded to other treatments, doctors may result to electroconvulsive therapy. It’s a treatment that involves a brief electrical stimulation of the brain while the patient is under anesthesia.Case Study and FindingsResearcher: I very thank you that you space out some time to let us do interview with you. Before we will ask a permission for record the voice when we interview you. After we finish our assignment we will delete the voice record. Other than that, your identity will be keep in secret. Then, if have some question that might make you feel uncomfortable you have the right to do not answer us. If do not have any problem, then we can start our interview.Interviewee: Ok, we can start the interviewR: The first question we going to ask is in your opinion what were the cause of your depression?I: In my opinion the cause of my depression have two. One is from work and one is my character of too perfectionist. When I do something I want to do it perfect. R: What actually trigged the onset of depression in your case?I: The factor that trigged onset of depression is I have a very bad school principle; he is a corrupted guy. He always wants money from us. I refuse to give him money while at the same time give me a lot problem on my work. So, I feel very depress and finally I got depression because of the school principle give me a lot of problem on my work.R: How do you know you are into the state of depression?I: As I am study in counselling I am master in counselling. During my counselling program I have study about depression. Depression have many symptoms. So when I go through the symptoms of depression I see that I have most of them so from there I know I got depression. R: Were you aware from the moment that you were suffering from depression?I: Yes, I aware that I suffering from depression the moment that I get depression because what I can tell I feel restless, I am not in a good mode I always feel very down, I prefer to avoid social gathering I don’t like to mix with friends, I always feel I am unhappy, I feel helpless, I feel worthless and sometime I feel I want to die. So, I suddenly wake up at night then cannot sleep. I eat too much and I lost my appetite so when I get all this symptom I know I suffering in depression.R: How does depression affect your daily life?I: Depression affect my daily life very much because I am a teacher when I go to school my mind cannot focus and mess-up and I always feel very down very blue so I cannot concentrate my work. I also avoid social gathering like go out with friend and I like to stay at home. So, depression affect my social life and my work. I refuse to talk to my family so they have to ask me many times to me. So this also affect my family life.R: How do you overcome problems brought about by depression?I: I pray because I am a Christian with my husband. Other than that I seek help from my family member and I let my friends know I suffering in depression so they can be more understanding then will not feel that I am not normal. I also read books about depression to learn more depression so I can overcome it.R: How often do you need to consult your medical specialist?I: At first when I am in a very serious stage, I have to see my medical specialist two week once after that become one month once. After I improve I see her three month once. After I very much recover so I can arrange to see her four month once.R: Other than medication, what else are involving in your treatment programme?I: they arrange me to see a counsellor I talk to the counsellor two time. Then, I talk to my husband as while; he also is a register counsellor. I also seek help from my family member they help me a lot. They encourage me to do the things I am interested. For example, watch movies, shopping and all the things will make me happy. R: Has it been challenging to treat your depressionI: Yes, it is very challenging because I have to accept that I am sick. Then, I also apply for early retirement from my work. I had to force myself to go out to mix my family and friends. I also have to force myself to do exercise. I also have to force myself to do the things that I am interested in because I will have lost interest to do the things I like to do. As, before I get depression I like to read books, like to write essay. All the interest gone when I get depression. So I have to force myself to do I again.R: Is family support essential in the treatment of depression?I: family support is very essential when I am in depression. My husband talks to me every day and give me comfort and work with encouragement. Other than that, we pray together every day. So my parents come away from Kuala Lumpur to Kuala Terengganu to stay with me and company me. My sister calls me quick often to make sure I am ok. My friends and ex-colleague also WhatsApp to me or call me because they know me I need friendship. So, family members are essential in my depression.R: What did you expect from family members while tackling your depression?I: I think is moral support from them and fully acceptance. They love me and care for me when I am healthy when I sick they also take care for me and support me even at difficult moment so I very grateful to them.R: In your case, was it difficult to overcome your tendency to be alone while going through depression?I: It is difficult to overcome the tendency to be alone because I like to be alone and stay at home don’t want to go out. So, my parents and husband need to encourage me to go out exercise and mix up with others. R: Do you think medication is necessary to treat depression?I: Yes, I think medication is necessary to treat depression. I feel so much release so much better after I take the medication that make me feel peaceful.R: Was there any relapse in your depression?I: Yes, I got depression when in the year 2015. Then after eight month I recover. During 2017 the depression relapse again. So, I got back my depression I have to see my doctor and take the medicine again. R: Is there anything else you wish to share about your experience of depression?I: I learn that human being are very weak. Last time I think I am very good but after I got depression I have more compassion about the people are sick because I know that we are human being. Human being have the tendency to fall sick. So, I have to love myself more and have to love others more to know that we all are human being we need each other. Second thing I learn that to appreciate family member more because they help me a lot and they love me a lot also. I know that they are always with me when I am in difficulty. Third things I have to appreciate doctors and nurses more because they treat me very well when I sick. After I recover they feel very happy for me. Fourth thing I need to thank god because god is with me even though I feel very difficult to hear from god. I remember during I am depression god promise my husband says that I will recover. When we eat a seed of mango. God ask he plant the seed of the mango in our garden says that when the tree grow up my depression will be get health. It is very correct. When the mango tree grew up I get health from my depression. That means I recover much better and better. So, I want to thank god he not forgotten me when I am sick. He is my healer now I am getting better and better from depression so I know that I need many aspects to help me to survive to a better live.R: Ok, thank you for your coming to let me know more about depression. That all for my interview.I: You are welcome.From these 15 question that we ask, we are going to share our knowledge gain from this interview. We know that we have a lot of the causes can make people become depression. In this case this interviewee get depression is from her work and her own personality which is perfectionist. But the main factor which trigged her onset of depression is her school corrupted principle. So, we can know that the depression is not come suddenly. You become depression is a cumulative process and get onset by a thing then u become depression. We also need to thank the interviewee she has provide us a test paper about to check do you have the symptoms of depression. (Appendix 1) In addition, based on this interview we know that depression can affect a person life a lot. It will make you from a talkative person to become a quite person. When you want to do somethings you also cannot focus on it because you will feel you are restless. From here we also know that other than medication, family love, the religion you trust and your friends are other importance way to help people who are depression to recover faster. Bases on the interviewee experience she says that to overcome the depression is very challenging. As you have to force yourself to do the things you do not wants to do. For example, you have to force yourself to go out with family and friends because a person that have depression they do not like go out with their family members and friends. So, the family member has play an important role. Based on the interviewee we can know that the person who get depression expect to get moral respect and fully acceptance from family. Then as family member we can talk to them and encourage them. If have the help from the family and friends thy can recover faster.Other than that, we can know that depression can be relapse. So, for those people who are recover from depression their family members and friends still need to take note, keep in touch with them to make sure they do not relapse to depression again. Last but not least, we agree that human being is very weak. We need each other when we have face some difficulty. We need to take care our family and friends. Other than that, we also need to love them. Approaches and Theory Depression can occur to anyone and even to people who have a strong mind. In this report, there are 4 theories, which are Behaviorist Theory, Psychodynamic Theory, Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and Beck’s Theory and 2 approaches which are Cognitive Approach and Humanist Approach.But first, what is depression? Depression is defined as a mood disorder which prevents individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family. It was referred as the ‘common cold’ of psychiatry because of its frequency of diagnosis.In Behaviorist Theory, behaviorism emphasizes the importance of the environment in shaping behavior. The focus is on observable behavior and the conditions through which individuals’ learn behavior, such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory.In Psychodynamic Theory, this theory dominated psychology and psychiatry. Depression was understood in terms of inwardly directed anger, introjections of love object loss, sever super-ego demands, excessive narcissistic , oral and/or anal personality need, loss of self-esteem, and deprivation in the mother child relationship during the first year.Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory is an example of the psychodynamic approach. Freud suggested that many cases of depression were to due to biological factors. However, Freud insisted that some cases of depression could be linked to loss or rejection by a parent. Depression is like sorrow, in that it often occurs as a reaction to the loss of an important relationship. But there is a key difference, because one regards themselves as worthless. What happens is that this person identifies with the lost person, so that the repressed anger towards the lost person is directed towards the self. The inner directed anger reduces the person’s self-esteem, and makes him/her prone to experiencing depression in the future. Freud then claimed it can be actual losses and symbolic losses. But later, Freud modified his theory and stated that the tendency to internalize loss objects is normal, and depression is simply due to an excessively super-ego. Thus, the depressive phase occurs when the individual’s super-ego or conscience is dominant.In Cognitive Approach, this approach focuses on people’s beliefs rather than their behavior. Depression results from systematic negative bias in thinking process. Emotional, behavioral and possibly physical symptoms result from cognitive abnormality. This approach assumes changes in thinking precede the onset of depressed mood.In 1967, Aaron Beck, a major cognitive theorist found out there were 3 mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression are the cognitive triad (of negative automatic thinking), negative self schemas, and errors in logic (i.e. faulty information processing).In Humanist Approach, Maslow claimed that the most important of these is the need for self-actualization because a self-actualizing person has a meaningful life. Unfortunately, there are 3 causes that can block our strives to fulfill this need which can be a cause of depression which are parents imposing conditions of worth on their children, some children may seek to avoid this by denying their true self and projecting an image of the kind of person they want to be, and as adults, self-actualization can be undermined by unhappy relationships and unfulfilling jobs. Conclusion Throughout the period of time researching for our Psychology Assignment and completing it, we submit that we are glad that by an initiative in doing some research through online articles and generous help of the interviewer who shared his psychological issues which is depression. We feel achieved to be able to have this opportunity to broaden our knowledge in Psychology especially in understanding the depression. Besides that, we were able to learn beyond the slides of our lecturer and this helped us to have a wider perspective on what is psychology. We were able to share our personal thoughts and view and enhance from there. We believe that this is the beauty pros of being assigned a grouped assignment as everyone has a different view to share.Other than that, we have definitely understood about depression while we doing this assignment. We can see that depression is classified as a mood disorder. We also learned that what is the causes of depression. With this psychology knowledge we have gained, we believe that it can let us apply it in our daily lives to help the people who had psychological issue. We can conclude from this assignment that there is no limit in life, same goes to learning.Lastly, we need to thank you for the helps from Professional Counselling Peter Wong.
Table of Contents