Is there an “unerring” way to study the way individuals think and

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Is there an “unerring” way to study the way individuals think and behave in their everyday life. According to psychological scientist, it has been a confirmed statement that they do not believe there is a “right” way to confirm this study. The study of psychology perspective reflects on the objective that necessitates certain assumptions about human behaviour in accordance to how they function. With the aid of theories, there have been a collective of approaches towards this study with hold an umbrella of similarities which comprise of uncertain assumptions. Psychology perspective is found to be a result of a synthesis of intellectual and cognitive as well as behavioural psychology theories.There are six fundamental objectives when it comes to the tradition of psychology perspective.• Biological• Psychodynamic• Behavioural• Cognitive approach• Humanistic approachBehaviouristBehaviour according to is defined as “the actions an organism uses to adjust to and live within its environment”. Behaviour is also what we are taught which largely impacts our mannerism. For example, a mum teaching her child manners in which the child will follow up as a habit When it comes to the behaviourism approach, this focuses on the scientific and objective methods of made investigations. This is usually concerned with evident stimulus responses. It also states how all the behaviours are learned through interaction in relation with the individual’s background environment. This movement was inaugurated in 1913. John Watson did create an article named “psychology as the behaviourist” which talks about his theory of behaviour mechanism ( This theory focused on an individual’s external and outward behaviour. Watson deduces that an individual’s physical response will provide the only insight into their true internal actions. He also believed that behaviour is learned from an individual environment as behaviourism highlights the role of environmental factors when it comes to influencing a person’s behaviour. Behaviourism is how environmental factors “stimuli” can affect observable Responses and behaviours. The behaviourist approach advocates two main processes in which individuals learn about their environment. These two are:Classical conditioning: this necessitates learning by association as well as operant conditioning which involve learning from the consequence of behaviour. A known artist Ivan Parvlov, was a Russian psychologist who focused on the study of classical conditioning which was actually discovered accidentally. Within 1980 Parvlov engaged in his first research which involved how dogs salivate when being fed. He discovered that the dogs would salivate in response to the food they were giving in front of them but however the “accident” was when he noticed how the dogs would salivate when they heard Parvlov assistance bringing them the food which created another research. Post the picture here…. further into his research, he had noticed that the dogs salivate to food on his own, however does not to the sound of a bell but however the dog salivates to the sound of the bell and food at the same time as shown in the picture. ( The unconditional Stimulus UCR The unconditional Response NS Neutral Stimulus CS Conditional Stimulus CR Conditional Response Pavlov has also stated that some things that a dog does they do not necessarily mean they have to learn that certain behaviour. For example, when dogs salivate, this reflex is “deep rooted” into them. ( However, when it comes to humans, Pavlov work had made a exceptional conclusion which states any stimulus an organism can perceive, is capable of eliciting any reaction the organism is capable of making. This goes to show that even sound, sight and smell can influence the way an individual’s muscles tense or relax and even how their mood fluctuate or even the way out attitudes are created for example in a nursery, if an individual said in an empathetic voice “don’t cry”, but then shoots a gun after, the person would feel startled and upset at the same time and eventually after a few time of this repeated act, just saying the word “don’t cry” is going to create a pessimistic response rather than its usually normal reaction.Operant conditioning: this is the continuation of research studied by B.F Skinner which is described as a process which attempts to modify behaviour through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Within this type of conditioning, the person makes as association between a specific behaviour and consequence. For example, when a parent was to increases a Childs behaviour in school they tend to treat them by giving them a reward if the child had achieved or done well at something which however, every time a child does that the parent would have to keep up with the reinforcement when the child continues this behaviour. According to skinners example, he had kept a rat in a box and every time the rat pressed the leaver, it would receive food and there would be a reinforcement giving (food). put a picture here……..Skinner believed there were three types of responses which were● Neutral operant’s: this deals with the response from an individual’s environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a repeated behaviour ● Reinforces: this is seen as the responses from the environment which will expand the probability of behaviour being repeated but this can either be positive or negative● Punishers: these are seen as responses from an environment which decreases the like hood of a certain behaviour being repeated as punishment debilitate behaviour M1: I will be discussing the strengths and weakness of each psychological perspective.Strengths of behavioural perspectiveThe behaviours approach is focused on the observable behaviourism which means that it is easier to target and collect see information and collect data during research. When It comes to the research, is found to be very influential as it provides major clarifications and evidence about a certain theorist, proponents of behaviourism and certain phenomenon. All these factors took part in creating all initial studies which were carried out from observable behaviours.Behaviorual analysis, Behaviroal intervention known as a effective therapeutic technique are all rooted to behaviourism. This approach is seen to be very useful in changing harmful behaviours in child as well as adults for example someone in mental health can be conditioned to see the world differently. When it comes to vales and reinforcement like punishments and rewards , it has been said this is essential when it comes to facilitating learning. When it comes to behavioural approach, the techniques is used for good cause and properly it will aid to an individual to learn new things wich will develop their cognitive intellect unless it will be sen as counter productive.Secondly, another positive could be that it is scientific as Pavlovs work was used in order to create objective which is seen as a scientific approach when it comes to psychology. This means that the aim of the study is observed and measurable. This is aimed to gets its answers through thoughts, opinions which are then “operationalised” which makes it possible to compare and analyse an experiments or individuals behaviours This approach as had much successful research especially when it comes to mental disorder. Pavlov’s work, especially classical conditioning, is applied to aversion therapy as to help those with addictions such as drugs and alcohol to reduce their behaviour of addictive intake ( it also contribute to help individuals who may suffer from phobias.The weaknesses of the behavioural approachOne weakness of this approach is that so much emphasis is focused on nature and the environment and how it effects and individuals behaviour. This means the nature as a subject alone is ignored as this approach ignores the genetic makeup of an individual and how it can have an impact on the way individuals behaves (nature and nurture debate simply for example how an individual’s emotions can change their thought on a decisions, mental process of learning, as well as their moods, thoughts and feelings towards certain encounters Even though this approach is good, it has deemed to be overly “deterministic” according to ( is states that behaviour is learnt from associations from interaction of environments stimuli as well as the reinforcement we may gain from it. It states that our environment is controls our behaviour rather than our conscious thoughts which is found to govern an individual’s behaviour. With the behavioural approach, it only considers what is measured and observable were as the unseen factors are the main important part that makes up an individual.HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGYHumanistic psychology is seen as a perspective which focuses on the study of humans and emphasizes on holistic view of an individual. This approach looks at a human’s behaviour but not through the eyes of the observer but through the eyes of the individual. Within this study, it was concluded that a person’s behaviour is associated with their inner feelings as well as self image. Humanistic perspective covers on the view that every individual is unique and does have a free will to develop and change.Humanistic approach also suggests according to ”” that individuals are accountable for their own contentment as well as well-being. This perspective states that humans have an inbuilt capacity to reach self-actualisation which is seen as our unique desire in which we can achieve our highest potential. Due to this focus, individuals have their own personal experience as well as subjective perceptions of the world. The two most paramount theorists when it comes to the humanistic psychology would be Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Abraham Maslow:Maslow had made a research which was into hierarchy of needs in which an individual needs. This hierarchy is a motivational therapy which comprises of five tier of when it comes to human needs which is levelled up in a pyramid. The needs are said to be satisfied and achieved before an individuals can reach self actualisation. Within the year of 1943-1954 Maslow had said that a person is motivated to achieve their needs and that some needs May take a longer than others. Firstly our first most important need would be our physical needs which are needed for survival and this is usually the first process of motivation before the next level. the first out of the five is 1. Physiological needs: these are defined as the biological requirements such as shelter, clothing, sex, sleep, drink, and food which is mainly and more which are needed for human survival. it is paramount that a person has theses biology requirements as if these needs are not reached and satisfied, they would find it hard to function or function at all. These are the most important needs because they are the primary needs which are needed to move up the hierarchy 2. Safety needs: this means protection, security, order, stability, freedom from fear and more,3. Love and belongingness needs: this means after physiological and safety needs need to be fulfilled. The third level of human needs involves feelings of belongingness. Examples such as love affection, being part of family, group of friends, work. The need for interpersonal relationships motivates behaviour 4. Esteem needs: These are put into two categories which are Firstly: Self esteem, dignity, achievements, independence secondly: Desire for reputation, respect from others, statues and prestige. Furthermore, Maslow suggest that the need for reputation and respect is found to be more important for adolescents, children.5. Self actualisation: this means when an individual has realised their personal potential, self fulfilment. growth , peak experiences and more and according to Maslow, “a desire to become everything one is capable of becoming” according to ”simplypsychology.org6. CARL ROGERSWithin the year of (1902-1987) was a strong humanistic psychologist who believed the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. But however he added his own research hope how individuals grow. He had stated that in order for a person to grow, they need an environment which will provide them with openness and self disclosure, acceptance, empathy by listened to and understood, and unconditional positive regard according to ””. He believed that all these listed above all contribute to how an individual needs to grow as a car would need fuel to move. This theorist believed that every individual person has the ability to accomplish their goals, desires and wishes in their lifetime and eventually self actualisation will take place. There was a lot of research in which Rogers contributed within this study such as how a person would have to undertake a number of factors to reach satisfaction as explained Furthermore when it comes to Rogers research, he states that individuals want to experience and behave in ways in which is consistent when it comes to our self image. This could also reflect what we would like to be like or our “ideal self”. An individual is said to be in a “incongruence” states”” if the whole of their experience is unacceptable to them and this is distorted in the self image. The humanist approach does state that an individual self is composed of unique concepts which are Self worth: self worth is defined as what we as humans think of us. Rogers’s theory believed that the feeling of self worth is developed from a person’s childhood and formed interactions between the child and parents.Self image: this is defined as the way we see ourselves. This also affects the way we think, act and feel towards certain situations which is essential for our health. For example when an individual has a good self image they tend to feel confident and take care of their self more as well as inner their personality. Ideal self: this is defined as how an individual would like to look like. This is made up of our goals, aspirations and ambitions in life we would like to achieve. Our ideal self is forever changing for example a child might want to be a car racer, then within teen age they would like to be a mechanic and then in later adulthood might want an engineer Lastly, Carl Rogers really did believe that an individual could do all the things they wanted in life as he said “The good life is a process