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TOPIC: HUMAN IMMUNODIFFICIENCY VIRUS(HIV), OBJECTIVE;Introduction Transmission Sign/symptomsPrevention Conclusion Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) this refers to the virus that attacks the immune cells in a body, the virus destroys the types of white blood cell in the immune system called T-HELPER CELLS (CD4 cell) and makes copies of itself inside the cell. As the viruses increase destroy more CD4 cells, this condition result led to low amount of CD4 hence an individual become with immune deficiency to protect the body against infection and diseases[1],[10] Transmission of HIVthe following are the ways through which HIV is transmitted from one parson to another Having unprotected sexual intercourse with infected partners, HIV viruses are biologically found in the semen, blood and fluid in the lamina propria of oral, cervicovaginal, foreskin and rectal epithelia thus easily transfer from infected person to safe one[2] From mother to child, during birth viruses from mother can easily pass the placenta at physiological blood mixing, and breastfeeding of child at above 6-monthes from birth[2],[4]Untested blood transfusion from HIV positive donor to HIV negative recipient without screening it[2],[3] Sharing unsterilized clinical tools like needle, scissor, blades and gloves[2],[4] Female genital mutilations using the same circumcising tools such as knifes, razor blade[2] Signs and symptoms The following are the both symptoms and sign of HIV, clinical detection of a viruses divided into two main categories which are early and late signs and symptoms: Early signs and symptoms of HIV, this take place in first few weeks between 3-4 after become infected by a virus[5] Lack of appetiteFatigue Nausea and vomitingDry mouthFever and chills Late signs and symptoms of HIV; Are the signs after several month up to year after person become affected[5],Weight lossPersistent coughingSkin problems Serious illness or diseasesNight sweatingMemory lossDepression and difficulty concentratingFear and anxietyPrevention of HIV The following are the ways of prevention of HIV Abstinence from unsafe sexual behaviour[2]Encourage uses of condom [2]Encourage to have one faithful sexual partners[2] Avoid sharing of clinical tools like syringe, scissors, and gloves used by infected person[6],[7] Voluntary male circumcision, have paramount reported to reduce being infected among mans [2]Uses of contraceptives like post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual intercourse have reported to have percentage to prevent transmission within 72 hours after exposure to HIV [6],[9]Intensive nurses care during child birth for an infected mother, may reduces the transmission of HIV from mother to child[4]Avoid unsafe blood transfusion[6],[8]generally , HIV cause AIDS which lead to death, reduction of man power because more working class are infected, increase in street children due to parent death.Thus uses of antiretroviral drugs(ARV) to suppress the HIV virus to infected person help to adjust life, and good health nurses care are required periodically[4] Referencesprimary sourcesArticle 2; Rachel A Royce,P.H.D, M.P.H,Arlene sena, MD, Willard Cate, JR.MD,MPH,and Myron S. Cohen, MD; The new england journal of medicine, sexual transmission of HIV, April 10-1997Article3; Rebecca F. Baggaley, Richard G. White and Marie Claude Boily; international Journal of epidemiology infection disease- HIV transmission . fer 22-2010Article5; Smith, Davey M; Journal of emerging infectious disease sign and symptoms of acute HIV infection in cohort undergoing community based screening, 3 -1-2016Article6; Padian, Nancy S,; the lancet journal (British edition ) HIV prevention transformed , the new prevention research Agenda . 2011 Secondary sourcesArticle 1; Avert.org. Reviewed meaning of HIV . 26-2-2017Article 7; department of radiology in most hospital in Ireland; concentric and eccentric target MRI sign in case of HIV associated cerebral exoplasmosis Article 8; operation of eye sight universal. Institute of eye cancer, Prassa eye institute, Hyderabad india ; Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV infected patient current percipective. March 2018Article 9; department of gynecology John Hopekin school of medicine Batmore MD- Bdurtha smith Aj, gynecological cancer sign and symptom of in HIV positive women; review and metaranalysis -2019Tertiary sources Article 4; department of pediatric and child health nursing .school of nursing collage of medicine and health science university of Gondar Ethiopia; document of maternal HIV infection and preeclapsia increase risk of low birth weight among new born delivery at university of Gondar specialized referral hospital north west Ethiopia, 2017Article 10; Oxford medical dictionary. 9 edition meaning of HIV

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