Margaret M Hopkins 2006 in this exploratory study describes the images of

Margaret M. Hopkins (2006) in this exploratory study describes the images of effective leadership and successful organizational advancement held by women in numerous positions in the health care fields. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys of 140 women in the health care field were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Findings – Differences were found between the characteristics of effective leadership and the characteristics contributing to successful advancement. Women in health care predominantly portray effective leadership in other-oriented (team or organizationally focused) and stereotypically feminine or gender-neutral terms. In contrast, successful advancement in organizations was predominantly and almost exclusively described in self-focused and stereotypically masculine terms. Similarities and differences in the perspectives on leadership effectiveness, career advancement, satisfaction, and development strategies were examined among physicians, nurses, administrators, faculty, and others (scientists and researchers). Research limitations/implications – Implications of the disparate perspectives held by women in health care are discussed and future directions for research are proposed.Originality/value – Since women overwhelmingly dominate employment in the health care field, to explicate their unique perspectives of leadership and career advancement.Patrick J. Rottinghaus, Susan X. Day and Fred H. Borgen (March 2007) had made this study to provide initial results on the development and validation of the Career Futures Inventory (CFI), a new 25-item measure of positive career planning attitudes. Items were originated using the rational method. Results from an item analysis of scale homogeneity and exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 690 undergraduates from a large mid-western university revealed three subscales: Career Adaptability, Career Optimism, and Perceived Knowledge. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the three-factor model provided an excellent fit to the data. Additional analyses established high internal consistency, temporal stability, and construct validity through examination of correlates with dispositional optimism, Big Five personality characteristics, generalized problem solving, vocationally relevant self-efficacy, interests, and numerous career-relevant attitudes and outcomes. Implications for future research and counseling practice are discussed.Lila Lenoria Carden (May 2007) studied the new emerging career paths for professionals are often non-linear, dynamic, and boundary-less (Baruch, 2004) and has resulted in undefined professional advancement opportunities for managers and employees in a variety of contexts. Career paths help individuals make meaning in their job contexts and provide avenues to meet intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, including economic and social status (Adamson, 1997; Callanan, 2003). As a result, individual perceptions of career paths may impact job satisfaction, career commitment, and performance. The purpose of this study was to test a career development model examining the path of relationships amongst autonomy/prestige, career path, training and learning, job satisfaction, career commitment, and performance for moderately defined career professionals. Based on a systematic categorization of careers, from well-defined to less well defined, project managers were determined to have moderately defined careers. The researcher employed a survey resulting in 644 project manager respondents. Path iv analysis was effectuated as a modeling technique to determine whether there was a pattern of inter correlations among variables. A career development model framing the relationship between project managers’ perceptions of their career paths on their respective performance was explored. The direct path relationships included: (a) frequency of participation in training and learning activities was negatively related to performance, (b) career path was positively related to performance, (c) autonomy/prestige was positively related to performance, and (d) career commitment was negatively related to performance. The indirect path relationships included (a) autonomy/prestige was mediated by career commitment and performance; (b) the connection between career path and performance was mediated by frequency of participation in training and learning (c) career path to performance, was mediated by job satisfaction and career commitment, and (d) career path to performance was mediated by job satisfaction, career commitment, and autonomy/prestige. Study findings supported the tested model and contributed to increased understanding regarding the importance of career paths to individual job satisfaction, career commitment, and performance. Opportunities for new research and implications for individuals and organizations are outlinedEran Vigoda-Gadot and Shmuel Grimland (2008) has explored this paper with the change in global and local markets and the emergence of new types of careers such as protean careers (which are values-driven), individual values (i.e. citizenship behaviors, altruistic standards, and helping activities) seem to have a growing effect on decisions people make about significant choices in their lives such as the choice of a career. The authors apply a theory of protean career and citizenship/altruistic behavior to study career choices and career development amongst an international sample of MBA and MPA students. It is expected that values may lead to career choices in early stages of vocational search, but career choices and development may also affect one’s values during the training process, especially during educational and professional schooling. This paper aims to focus on the issues surrounding career choice. Design/methodology/approach – The study focuses on the first stage of the process of career choice at the beginning of MBA/MPA studies. A quantitative research design was applied by using a survey instrument that draws on a cross-national study.Findings – A positive relationship is found between good citizenship of altruistic behavior and protean career. This relationship is solid and generic beyond the effect of gender, age, or culture/national setting. Originality/value – The findings point to some meaningful relationships amongst the studied variables and emphasize the need to direct MBA/MPA students to a value-oriented educational program in their fields of expertise. The paper ends with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications for future studies in career development.

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