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Chapter 3METHODOLOGY This chapter represents the research method, description of participants and statistical treatment of data.Method of Research The researchers used descriptive research method in gathering the needed information for this study. According to Ritchie et al, (2013) stated that by using descriptive method the researcher will be able to observe large mass of target population ad make required solution. With the use of descriptive design the researchers can effectively design a pre-structured questionnaire for pre-test and post-test. The information collected from the participants can be statistically presented in this type of research method for the easy interpretation of the report users.Description of Respondents The participants of this study were the grade three students in Masagana Elementary School. All of the grade three students in Masagana Elementary School were covered in the study. The total number of students of the study was 54 grade three pupils which included 24 females and 27 males. There were two section of grade three level in Masagana Elementary School: Grade 3-Malikhain and Grade 3-Mapagmahal. Most of the students ranged from 9-10 years old. The research was conducted by the year 2019-2020.Research InstrumentThe researchers used pre-test and post-test as research instruments. To measure the students’ vocabulary, the researchers prepared a vocabulary pre-test and post-test. The pre-test and post-test were composed of 40 questions that were classified into animals, values, color and food. It used fill in the blanks, classification of words, matching type and identification as a type of questions. However, in the post-test several changes were made to measure the students’ ability to answer the questions and to maintain the validity of the questionnaire.In classification of the words the researchers adapted the Three Tiers of Vocabulary Development Theory specifically the Tier 1. It is also called as “Common words or Known words”. The words under this are basic or every day words that are part of most children’s vocabulary. These words are used every day in conversation and most of them are learned by hearing from family, peers, and teachers when speaking. In this study the researchers used the basic words in teaching vocabulary using nursery rhymes to grade three students. The basic words were based on the curriculum textbook of grade three students. Ten nursery rhymes were selected from the textbooks of the students grade level which were grouped according to the major themes that the researchers selected to work on. It went through face validation coming from three experts to make sure that those were suitable to the respondents of the study. The language experts were Prof. Kamille Legaspi, Mrs. Luzviminda and Ms. Maryjoy Adigue. The ten nursery rhymes that the researchers selected were the following: “A Log in the Bog in the Fog”, ”A Jug in the Middle of a Rug”, “Cock-a-doodle-doo”, “A Good Man”, “Jay, Rey, and the Clay”, “A Bright Night for Little Might”, “Mother Earth”, “I Will Plant a Garden”, “Horsey, the King”, and “Every Time I Climb a Tree”.The standardized vocabulary pre-test and post-test was adapted to the study of Farrah and Shehadeh (2016) entitled “The Effectiveness of Using Children’s Songs in Developing Elementary Graders’ English Vocabulary and Pronunciation in Jerusalem, Palestine. The researchers made necessary changes however, the format of the test did not change. Still the final points of the test were forty and the estimated time is forty minutes. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers wrote a letter addressed to the Director of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Maria Bulacan Campus to ask for an approval to conduct the study. After the approval had been granted the researchers wrote another letter to the Department of Education Region 3 Malolos Division to ask for their permission to conduct a study on a public school in Pandi, Bulacan. After the approval was granted the researchers conducted a pre-test to the students. After the result of the pre-test was determined, the researchers went to Masagana Elementary School for five consecutive weeks to teach the students the different nursery rhymes. The researchers followed the schedule below.Table 1Schedule of Teaching in Grade 3 Students in Masagana Elementary SchoolSCHEDULE TOPIC TEACHER/RESEARCHERWeek 1 A Log in the Bog in the FogA Jug in the Middle of a Rug Jennifer SantisasJennifer Adigue,Michelle Dela CruzAra May BarientosWeek 2 Cock-a-doodle dooEvery Time I Climbed a Tree Jennifer SantisasJennifer AdigueMichelle Dela CruzAngelica SandilWeek 3 A Good ManHorsey, the King Jennifer SantisasJennifer AdigueMichelle Dela CruzAra May BarientosWeek 4 Jay, Rey, and the ClayA Bright Night for Little Might Jennifer SantisasJennifer AdigueMichelle Dela CruzAngelica SandilWeek 5 Mother EarthI Will Plant a Garden Jennifer SantisasJennifer AdigueMichelle Dela CruzAra May BarientosThe researchers used the teaching method prescribed by Heni Oktiviani in his research entitled “The Use of Nursery Rhymes to Improve Students’ Vocabulary”. Each session started with a pre-test followed by the researchers/teachers presenting the nursery rhymes using a visual aid. Next, the researchers/teachers explained the meaning of nursery rhyme. The researchers/teachers asked the students to find difficult words then the researchers/teachers explained the difficult words in the nursery rhyme. The researchers/teacher also introduced the pronunciation of the difficult words. The next step was the researchers/teachers sang or read the first line then, the students repeated it. After that the researchers/teachers sang or read the next line, the researchers/teachers asked the students to repeat it and so on. After mastering the rhyme or intonation of each line, the researchers/teachers to sing or read the nursery rhymes by following her. Then, the researchers/teachers asked the students to sing or read the nursery rhyme without the researchers/teachers’ guidance. When singing the nursery rhymes, the researchers/teachers showed pictures to represent the words of nursery rhymes. If possible, the researchers/teachers associated the words with action. The researchers/teachers explained the words in each line of nursery rhyme to the students. Then, the researchers/teachers asked some questions to check the students’ comprehension. Lastly, the researchers/teachers ended each session with a post-test to compare the pre-test results and post-test results and to check on the students’ improvement in vocabulary.Statistical Treatment of Data To determine the performance of the students in the pre-test and post-test, the mean formula was used.M=(∑▒f)/nWhere:M= Mean∑▒f = Summation of frequencyN= Total of number On the other hand, to determine the significant difference between the pre-test and post-test, the T-test formula was used_t=(X ̅_1-X ̅_2)/(√((S_1^2)/N_1 )+(S_2^2)/N_1 )Where:X ̅_1 = mean for pre-testX ̅_2 = mean for post-testN_1 = total number of respondentsS_1^2 = variance of pre-testS_2^2 = variance of post-testWith the application of the following formula written above, the researchers came up to compare the results of pre-test and post-test given by the grade three students of Masagana Elementary School.