Non-specific low back pain, more accurately called lumbosacral pain occurs below the 12th rib and above the gluteal folds without identification of any specific cause. It is one of the occupational musculoskeletal diseases which occur mostly in nurses and among all health professionals.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the level of disability due to non-specific low back pain among nurses working in different government hospitals of Lahore.Methodology: This was the cross-sectional study. Data was collected by 300 nurses in different government hospitals of Lahore. Convenient sampling technique was used in this study. Oswestry disability index questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 22.Results: Among 300 participants, majority of participants i.e. 32% were of age ranged from 26 -30 years .48% were of normal weight and 40% of overweight .Among 54% married female ,22% had only one child .66% reported history of low back pain while 41% had LBP since last 7 days. According to Oswestry disability index questionnaire, mild disability was found to be high among participant 36% had mild disability whereas 29% had moderate disability.Conclusion: It was concluded that non-specific low back pain is a common problem leading to minimal and moderate disability. Minimal disability while performing daily activities was found to be higher among nurses working in different hospitals of Lahore.Keywords: Low Back Pain, Nurses, functional disability, Occupational musculoskeletal disease. 1. INTRODUCTION Non-specific low back pain is a significant problem in industrialized societies due to high health care utilization, rising costs of care, and perceived limitations of the effectiveness of treatment. It is a significant source of long-term disability and work absence, is a substantial social and personal burden, and accounts for approximately 80% for the total costs of back pain care (1).Non-Specific low back pain is generally not diagnostic but it is a description of low back pain whose reason/ cause cannot be definitely identified. Almost 85% of all low back pain is nonspecific low back pain. The label does not reassure that specific pathologies have been ruled out by appropriate tests and imaging. The condition manifests as a continuation of an initial episode or periodic recurrences and remissions (2).Many exercise programs have been structured and actualized for individuals with Non -specific low back pain and very extraordinary projects seem to have comparable impacts. Not all individuals with Non-specific low back pain advantage from exercise projects and it would help clinicians and care-searchers if factors that sway on program adequacy and achievement are recognized (3). Non-specific low back pain, more accurately called lumbosacral pain occurs below the 12th rib and above the gluteal folds without identification of any specific cause. It is one of the occupational musculoskeletal diseases which occur mostly in nurses and among all health professionals (4). Pain in lower back is common in health care professions mostly due to stresses and workload. It is a prevalent condition involves neuro-musculoskeletal structures of back, complains with dull aching or sudden sharp feelings. Throughout the world, low back pain is the most dominant cause of chronic pain (5). Individual factors related with low back pain are gender, age, obesity, muscular strength related to the work requirements, endurance of the back musculature and smoking. Work related organizational factors of low back pain are heavy, vigorous lifting movements, bending, twisting the vertebral column, vibration of the entire body and physical training (6).Work related musculoskeletal disarranges (MSDs) as a rule occur over some undefined time frame, coming about because of rehashed outstanding burden exposures. The neck, low back, and upper appendages are usually exposed against MSDs. Nurses are at high take a huge risk and back discomfort. Unbalanced working stances, monotonous work, and delayed standing can result in harm to muscles, joints, bones, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and veins, which would then be able to prompt backache, fatigue and different MSDs. The kind of torment differs, running from a stiff feeling to unbearable pain. Low back pain (LBP) is the most continuous grievance, and practically all nurses worldwide have encountered this amid their professional carrier (7). The nurses face low back pain more commonly due to reasons such as providing patient care by bending forward for long durations, over-loading some body parts while repositioning patients, and spending more time for patient care. In addition, frequent repetition of body movements and functions such as reaching up-forward, holding, clasping-hugging, lifting are the grounds for the appearance of this problem (8). Most of the time spends nurses in awkward posture. To prevent errors, they need to assume and maintain steady hands and awkward postures. Awkward and strained postures might cause backache, and repetitive activities and psychosocial stressors might lead to shoulder and neck pain. Altered positions assumed while performing nursing work are known to lead to occasional pain in nurses Different preventive measures can be taken, e.g. stretching before work, taking a break amidst the day, performing procedures with good body posture, and reducing repetitive motion. However, many different factors should still be related to LBP .The literature suggests other associated factors are age of the nurse, number of patients treated per day, and type of cases handled nurses (9).It has been found that 84.2% of the nurses experienced low back pain, and 66.7% of the nurses faced this pain as “a pain with mild severity”. Nurses who had not received any education on low back pain remained standing for long periods of time are at high risk of having low back pain. They have to perform interventions that required bending forward, lifted and repositioned patients did not use any aiding tool during interventions, experienced severe pain and had higher average pain scores (10).Nurses who work for development and improvement of health in cases of health problems spend more time on patients as compared to other health professionals (11). They provide direct care for the patients so frequency of low back pain is higher in nurses as compared to other health professionals. (12). Different studies showed the much high ratio of low back pain in nurses, the main reason of this the working posture of nurses. The maximum time of work their posture in bowed with heavy lifting of patients’ weight and twisted posture. Researches on biomechanics had shown that such bowed heavy lifting with twisting produce high stress on spinal canal (13)Event of ache in back and its belongings are impediment and incapacity. It was determined that the activity handicap diminished the capacity for every day employments separated from occupation, and the diminished capacity for extra time exercises. Hence back pain powerfully affects individuals and on mankind (14).Prevalence of low back pain in nurses is also higher due to higher work place hazards than other health care workers. The nurses work in high mental, mechanical and physical stress so they are more prone to low back pain (15). Disability because of prolonged back ache is a troublesome and multidimensional procedure which is connected with the high social and well being use. This confusion is depicted by interface between the few factors that close handicap. Psychosocial and occupation related factors, for example, dread and trouble to play out the day by day exercises in the working setting and at home are the main considerations of handicap. Numerous specialists trust that the torment force is the primary part of inability what’s more; alternate specialists set up that the psychosocial factors are the essentially handicapping element. There are numerous evidences which affirm that psychosocial factors are more basic than physiological factors in the advancement of unending agony and disability. Which affects the individual travelling, walking, sitting, standing, sleeping, home making and personal care, lifting etc. (16)All through the world individuals encountered the most common indication is Low back pain (LBP). Because of low back pain a considerable lot of the general population can’t play out their obligations and it makes the real reason because of which many staff unable to perform their duties. Multi factors are associated with low back pain and it impacts the most dynamic people of the world and prompts numerous social and financial issues (17).Nurses facing much difficulty to perform their regular routine events such as walking, travelling, standing, walking, sitting, and home making, personal care, sleep etc. (18).Little work has been done or published on determining the level of disability due to non-specific low back pain among nursing staff in Pakistan. The number of working hours among the nursing profession and the tough nature of their job may predispose them to non-specific low back pain which may lead to functional disability. This research will analyze the level of functional disability during everyday activities.
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