One of the major dares facing South African education is that of

One of the major dares facing South African education is that of realizing the constitutional value of quality, free from discrimination and the right of basic education for all, including the ones who experience barriers to learning. Under apartheid, learners were separated not only educated separately but also according to their races, but a separate education system served those with impairments or disabilities. Barriers to learning acknowledges that causes educational difficulties may be intrinsic and extrinsic to learning. Barriers to learning are the preferred South African term to explain why some learners do not experience learning success. The term is preferred to special needs which signifies a medical or deficit approach to educational difficulties and discover the problem within the learner, rather than in the system (Howell, 2007:98).Intrinsic barriers include sensory, physical, development impairment, chronic illness, differing intellectual ability and psycho-social disturbances. Extrinsic barriers are the factors that comes from outside the learners or outside the body, but impact on his or her learning. They may come from the family and it cultural, social and economic conditions and may include lack of parental environment from schools and family problems like violence, death, and divorce of parents.Neurological conditions are disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. In other words, the brain, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system e.g. brain tumors. The sensory impairment is when one of your senses is no longer normal, it can be a sense of light, smell, hearing, touch, taste and spatial awareness. For example, if you wear grasses you have a sight weakness, if you find it hard to hear then you have a hearing impairment. There is also a dual sensory impairment which is a combination of two impairments which are hearing and sight.Poverty is a condition or state at which a person or people lacks the financial resources and needs for a minimum standard of living. In other words, poverty means that the income measure from employment is low than basic human needs cannot be met, people and families might live without proper housing, healthy food, clean water, and medical attention.The curriculum itself creates barriers by being flexible in the style and speed in which teaching, and learning takes place, the way in which the classroom is organized and managed as well as the availability of materials and apparatus as it prevents the needs of the diverse learners from being met. The way in which assessments are being designed can create a barrier between the learners who can remember a certain amount of information and the learners who understand the content.Neurological conditions Intrinsic barriers which are orders of the brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body. it is important for school squad to an individual occupation action plan, this group should have teachers, school nurses, physicians and the community member including the parents who can help when it comes to the health of the learners (Nabors, Little, Akin-Little, &Iobst, 2008). Neurological conditions affect the learner’s learning a lot, a learner with this condition often experience fatigue and this extreme tiredness make it hard for the learner to concentrate and engage with others in the classroom environment. The fatigue caused by these conditions make it hard for the learners to concentrate and may end up sleeping during the lesson and this may lead to the learner failing that subject. These effects make it hard for teachers to present the lessons, a teacher may not present a lesson while there is a sleeping or an unconscious learner. One of the major effects of these conditions is when the learner have difficulties with concentration and completion of tasks or assignments, if a learner cannot concentrate in the classroom, it is hard for the teachers also to present the lesson and in that way the teaching and learning cannot take place properly. Failure to complete the tasks or assignment makes it hard for the teacher to see how far they have gone and to identify the difficulties in the curriculum. The neurological conditions are sometimes painful, this makes it hard for the learner to engage in the lesson because of the pain he/she may be going through, pain can be direct or indirect consequences of a neurological disorders. These conditions leave learners vulnerable to a wide spread of viruses and inflections, and frequent absenteeism due to the hospitalization of the learner and the change in medication. The medication may lead to lethargy and difficulty with concentration in the classroom and the learner cannot acquire any information, this means that the learner cannot participate in the class and this can be caused by the lowering of the energy level of the learner. These conditions can be more susceptible to stress the presence of stress makes it difficult for learner to produce positive results. Learners with neurological conditions must be considered when teachers set assessments, because they have memory difficulties (Wodrich et al.,2006). This may lead to the illness which could be exacerbated by times of stress and is a major barrier to learner. Some learners may have postural difficulties and mobility with walking, climbing, stairs, or remaining in one positive for long periods of time, this may also lead to the difficulties on the learners to reach the classroom e.g. failure to climb stairs may also lead to the failure to finish the difficult to reach the classroom. Writing and other fine motor activities may also be affected, and this may lead to failure to finish the tasks and assignment e.g. difficulties in the computer use. There conditions may result in the learner having difficulties with oral communication.

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