P1 – explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context.Communication is a form of giving and receiving information and instructions. There are many methods of how to communicate with others, for example, it may be verbal, written, non-verbal – using body language, braille or sign language to communicateHospital ward- A nurse is having a formal 1-2-1 interaction with a patient and informing her about her treatment. One to one communications are interactions between only two people this can be informal or formal depending on the scenario or how well the individuals know each other, assertive communication is usually used during this type of interaction. Assertive communication is when you are talking to one another confidently but not aggressively. When the nurse enters the patients’ room, she may shake the patient’s hand and introduce themselves this would be the start of the formal interaction as the nurse is formally introducing herself. It would be necessary to politely ask everyone to leave so they can commence with the 1-2-1 conversation regarding her treatment this is an example of assertive conversation, the nurse is in charge but not being forceful. After everyone has left and they have privacy the nurse may ask if she can sit down beside the patient’s bed, this will put the patient at ease and feel comfortable as they are at the same level. By being at the same eye level it will be easier to make eye contact, the patient may feel less intimidated when the nurse is sitting beside her as she may feel like the nurse is not in a dominating position. Eye contact is important when having a formal conversation as the non-verbal communication signifies confidence and respect, if the nurse didn’t make eye contact it would symbolise insecurities and shyness. When the nurse is sitting beside the patient it is essential that she has correct posture for example she is not slouched or laid back, the nurse must keep an upright posture with her legs crossed, her body language sets a formal representation unlike if she was slouched it would suggest she is relaxed and it is not a formal or important conversation. If the patient has impairments such as hearing or sight the nurse may have to reconsider the method of communication. For example, if the patient is hard of hearing but can understand sign language the nurse will have to sign her the information of the treatment. Due to the nurse changing her form of communication she needs to make sure once she has explained the form of treatment to the patient that it is not misunderstood or taken in a way which can cause distress or complications, the nurse needs to check her understanding. When communicating with the patient she must not use any form of slang or jargon as there may be some miscommunication if the patient does not understand. The nurse must use professional language but to a certain extent as it may confuse the patient is it is too scientific or medical. By using jargon, it doesn’t express a formal conversation and the patient may not take the conversation seriously.During the discussion of the patient’s treatment the nurse may use a variety of questioning techniques such as open questions and extended questions to help engage with the patient and what she thinks. Open questions encourage talking, the nurse may use this form of questioning when asking if the patient has any worries or concerns about her treatment, if so to expand on reasons why and how she would want to change or improve certain areas. It would be informal for the nurse to use leading questions when discussing the patients treatment as they may not fully understand the patients capability, for example, when discussing physical aspects of the treatment the nurse may accidentally make the patient feel pressured into agreeing with the physical form of treatment “looking at the information in front of me I don’t think you will be able to do some physical tasks at the start of your treatment, do you?” the patient may feel obliged to agree as she believes the nurse knows what is best for her. In response the patient may enquire about the worries, negative impact and disadvantages to the treatment. When the patient is talking, the nurse would make strong eye contact and nod their head this would provide acknowledgment, showing that the nurse is listening and taking on board what she is saying. After the patient has finished the nurse will respond by comforting her e.g. by putting a hand on their arm, this would signify sympathy and support. Then proceeding to reassure them of their safety and their best interests are at heart when ongoing the treatment. After discussing the treatment and clarifying query’s, positive and negative when it comes to the end of the formal conversation the nurse will use the correct use of goodbye for the nurse it will be standing up and shake the patient’s hand. Day centre- A care worker and a group of 5 elderly people are having an informal meeting to discuss the activity programme for that day.During the group interaction at the day centre the care worker may make everyone a warm drink, get some snacks such as biscuits and crisps before proceeding to sit around the table or on the sofa with the 5 elderly service users. The care worker will then have a casual conversation, asking everyone how they are before proceeding onwards to discuss the activities for that day. The care worker may have to use a variety of communication methods to make sure each individual is included and not discriminated against when making the decision of planning what activities to do throughout the day. Some of the elderly people may suffer from dementia or struggle to hear as well as others, the care worker may have to repeat themselves verbally more than once so that everyone is informed of the opportunities they can access for that day. The care worker may also show the 5 service users images of the activities available. For example, the care worker may show them pictures of a bingo machine, crosswords, a local walking footpath accessible for anyone with disabilities, by showing them visual images it will help them remember what it is, preventing confusion with other games and help decide what looks the most interesting to them. The care worker might also use written communication, they might make a list of the activities. This would be an advantage if the care worker has a language barrier or the elderly do not understand what they are saying due to hearing impairment, it allows them to visually see the options they have which will help them decide later on. By having visual and written representations of the activities, it enables the elderly to refer back to all their options at any time.As this is an informal conversation between the care worker and 5 elderly service users the care worker does not need to communicate to them in a aggressive or submissive manner. The care worker is there to guide the group and put actions in place, it is not their decision they are just there for support and help. By talking to the group of elderly people in the care home in an assertive way it implies that the care worker is respected and confident but also relaxed and calm. By decreasing the amount of input, it gives the elderly that opportunity to make their own decisions and be independent but still communicate with others to settle on an idea everyone is happy with. The care worker will give guidance and ask open questions such as “ that’s a good idea but how about if we change it a bit to include everyone?” or “ how about we re-think that, what do you think?” by giving this guidance they are still allowing that freedom but helping out to get the best results that make everyone happy and included. By using open questions, the care giver is not dominating but is encouraging more discussion, the questions might imply a change or suggest compromising on another activity for the day.Due to the care worker and 5 elderly people in the day centre having an informal meeting the care workers body language will be very relaxed, there may be various amounts of eye contact through out the meeting as it’s a group meeting and not a 1-2-1. The care worker will also convey through non-verbal communication this includes nodding their head when they agree instead of verbally stating their opinion, making unusual faces if they do not agree or eye rolling. The care workers posture will be very relaxed, due to the informality of the meeting they will be slouched or hunched back when sitting down. They may sit with there legs open or down instead of crossed like in a formal meeting. At the end of the meeting the care worker will take a vote on who would like to do what activity, the most favourable will be set for the day. On a board in the most common place in the day centre such as in the kitchen, living room or lounge will be when and where the activity will take place so the 5 elderly people can check and arrive without any confusion. Residential home- A manager, care worker, service user, service users family and a social worker are all attending a formal meeting to discuss the service user’s move to a nursing home.