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Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages of an individualI am working as a care support worker in a residential care home for older people. As part of my professional development, my manager has asked me to produce a series of case study reports on one of the new residents and to share this with other staff. I have chosen May, an 82-year-old female who is widowed and has three children, five grandchildren and four great-grandchildren. Since the death of her husband, six years ago, she has been living alone in a three-bedroom terraced house. In that time, she has suffered two heart attacks and suffers from COPD (because of smoking in early adulthood) and osteoarthritis in her neck. Her daughter and son-in -law live near, visiting her daily, and providing for her needs. She is a Christian and attends church with her family. The family have persuaded her to sell her house and move into residential accommodation as the house and living alone has become too much for her.Birth and infancy 0–3 years Attachment to carers Childhood 4–9 years First experience of education Adolescence 10–18 years Identification with peer group – puberty takes place during this period Adulthood 18–65 years the right to vote, and manage one’s own financial affairs, happens at 18 Older adulthood 65 years onwards 65 is the current age when men (and women born after 6 April 1955) receive a state pension Final stages of life Variable Physical ‘decline’Conception Human life, on this occasion May’s life, begins at conception. Females usually produce one egg cell each month, roughly two weeks after the last menstrual period. The egg cell travels from the ovary, along the fallopian tube towards the uterus. If sexual intercourse takes place while the egg is in the fallopian tube, there is a possibility of conception. When intercourse takes place, millions of sperms are ejaculated by the male during orgasm. Just one sperm may fertilise the egg. Fertilisation means that in order to start a new life, the genetic material in the sperm joins the genetic material on the egg. Pregnancy Pregnancy is the development of one or more offspring known as an embryo or foetus on the uterus. A typical pregnancy lasts 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period to the birth of the baby. It is divided into three stages called trimesters: the first trimester, the second trimester and the third trimester. Conception to about the 12th week of pregnancy marks the first trimester. The second trimester is weeks 13 to 27 and the third trimester starts about 28 weeks and lasts until birth. During the first trimester the body undergoes many changes as May starts to develop eyes and her face becomes more visible. Hormonal changes affect almost every organ system in the body. The changes that May’s mother would develop symptoms like extreme tiredness, headache and craving for certain things. During the second trimester some symptom’s like nausea and morning sickness might go away. However, changes to the body are happening, for example, the abdomen will expand as the baby continues to grow.  At 14 weeks, May is about 85mm long from head to bottom.  her body parts start developing.By about 32 weeks the baby is usually lying with its head pointing downwards, ready for birth. So May’s bones are starting to harden now and her skull is still soft and gentle. There are some new body changes in the third trimester, for example, shortness of breath, heartburn and swelling of the fingers, legs and face. At 37-40 weeks May is about 19-21 inches long which means that she is healthy during this time leading to birth.Birth and Infancy: 0-3 yearsThe process of bringing forth childbirth. This is when a baby twists and turns through the birth canal. Physical development means the formation on how children will grow physically. This process starts in human infancy. When May was born, she was a baby so she didn’t really do much except from sleep, breastfeeding from her mother and crying a lot as all babies do when they’re born. Babies tend to sleep for 16-17 hours a day. However, some babies sleep more than others and some enjoy less sleep. Babies must get breastfed or bottle fed every four hours and need to be fed regularly in order for the baby to grow. Babies cry because it is their way of trying to communicate when they want to be fed or when they want comfort from their mother. By six months after birth, May would’ve been able to lift her hands and head when she is laying flat on her belly and so will other babies. This could mean that the baby could start crawling soon. Also, during the six months May would want attention from her mother and she is also learning the different response from her close family members according to what she does. So from now onwards, a baby will do just about anything to get attention. May might also be curious with what her parents are doing or eating. By twelve months, May would be able to crawl, walk and sit up with no support or help from her family. She will also show an interest in loud games or songs which would entertain her. This would be shown when she is laughing, screaming and moving her hands quiet a lot. Babies tend to resist taking naps or sleeping at this at this time of physical development. However by the age of 3, May would be able to put her shoes on but wouldn’t be able to tie them up. She would also be able to run around and walk well, at this stage she is more independent on running and walking by herself. Intellectual developemnt means a child’s ability to think about and understand things in a different way, for example, they could start to pay more attention. New born babies can recognize their mother’s voices straight away. At the start of three months, babies’ sight will be fuzzy and blurry but it will gradually develop through their first year. An infant’s brain development is the key for intellectual development and by six months May would’ve had different cries for hunger or pain, and her parents/carers would probably hear her babble and coo. These abilities show that May is gaining communication and pre-language skills. During a few months after birth babies tend to recognize familiar faces and voices. Emotional development relates to a person’s emotions, for example, babies cry because it is their way of trying to communicate when they want to be fed or when they want comfort. The most common reason why a baby might cry is because they are hungry, sometimes babies cry for no reason this usually happens when the baby is less than five months. At two/three months, babies tend to show their emotions through facial expressions, for example, they begin to frown when they’re about to cry. At this stage, they are comforted by being fed or cuddled. They will also start beginning to have a routine as their sleeping patterns begin to change. At four to six months, babies are able to laugh and not just smile. Parents/carers can also calm a baby down at this stage by picking them up or by showing some kind of gesture that they are familiar with. From six to twelve months, babies start to suck their thumb and play with their hands. May would have shown similar emotional traits to the ones listed above. Social development involves learning to interact with other people and to understand and control one’s own emotions. Babies start to develop relationships with the people around them right from birth, but the process of learning to communicate, share, and interact with others takes many years to develop. New born babies love being held by their family members. During the first month, May may begin to copy the same facial expressions as her family members, for example, if her mother sticks her tongue out she might do the same. When a baby is two years old, that is when they start to enjoy playing with other children. When May first started playing with other children she might not have wanted to share her toys. However, later on she would have started to share and include other children to play with her. Once May starts nursery, she will start to develop listening skills and be able to communicate with teachers.ChildhoodAdolescence AdulthoodOlder Adulthood Final Stages of Life Explain the potential effects of five different life factors on the development of an individual Explain the influences of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual Explain two theories of ageing Explain the physical and psychological changes which may be associated with ageingDiscuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual Discuss two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual Discuss the effects on self esteem and self confidence of the physical changes associated with ageing

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