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centercenterLauren Hykamr fuller | 22.01.19Unit 3: Health, Safety and Security in Health & Social CareHazards8820090900Lauren Hykamr fuller | 22.01.19Unit 3: Health, Safety and Security in Health & Social CareHazardsP1: Explain potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each in a health or social care setting.Hazards are all around us, every day we are exposed to potential hazards and risks from various things, this makes us vulnerable to potential damage, harm and adverse health effects. A few examples of where hazards can occur are: workplaces such as construction sites, nurseries and even hospitals. Risk is the potential chance or likelihood that a person will be harmed or experience some sort of health effect if exposed to a hazard. An example of a hazard can be: Physical environment (a factor within the environment)Equipment (electrical, sharp edges, small pieces etc.)Infection (disease, viruses etc.)Substances (cleaning materials, medication etc.)EtcAn example of the potential harm caused by hazards are:InjuryAcquired infectionPsychological distressInappropriate distressLoss/damage to belongings/premisesHospital Setting: Paediatric WardFirstly, hospitals usually are recognised as a ‘safe’ place and it would be a surprise to learn that there are various hazards that exist within a hospital and each ward. The paediatric ward provides care for children, although nurses and other staff members take great precaution to ensure that the ward is safe for children, potential hazards still exist. One type of biological hazard which can occur in this ward, is the exposure and risk of contracting an infectious disease, this is due to close contact and multiple exposure to & with poorly children, excreta and purulent discharges. This can mainly affect staff as they are exposed to thus biological hazard daily, increasing their chances of contracting any type of infectious disease especially if precautions are not taken. This can be prevented by, staff wearing gloves and masks when having to make physical contact with a patient, ensuring that they (staff) wash their hands before and after encountering a patient to rid of germs and bacteria. This can also affect visitors if they come too close in contact with the poorly patient and visiting the ward (in general) on a day-to-day basis. Visitors can take the same precautions as staff such as, wearing gloves and masks when encountering a patient, washing of hands before and after entering the ward. Patients however are usually kept apart and put on bed rest, limiting their chances of encountering one another and reducing their chances of contracting any infections from one another.Another type of hazard that can exist is accident hazards. There are various types of accidents that can occur in a hospital/wards. One example of this is slips, trips and falls on wet floors. Cleaners must wash the floors of the hospital daily, this is to ensure that the ward is clean and meets hygiene legislations. The floor must be clean as people come in and out leaving tracks of dirt, accidental spillage which can cause slips. However, although the floor may be clean, once it is freshly washed and left to dry it will be quite slippery, which can increase the chances of accidents such as slips, trips and falls. Staff and other service providers will be affected as they must tend to patients, however they must ensure that they take precautions while walking on a wet floor, especially when carrying medication, equipment and sterilizing equipment. This can be prevented by, wearing shoes with non-slip soles to decrease the chance of slipping and falling. Visitors can also be exposed to this hazard and should ensure that they take precautions the same way staff members do, wearing non-slip soles, shoe covers and walking at a slow pace. Patients are not severely affected due to the fact they are usually on bed rest, however if they were to walk around they must also take the same precautions mentioned previously. Precautions must also be taken especially in the case of an emergency in which people must walk/run at a fast pace, all visitors, staff members and patient must take consideration and appropriate precautions.Finally, another type of hazard in which staff members can be exposed to, is chemical hazard. An example of this is exposure to radiation from x-rays and radioisotope sources. This can affect staff members mainly, as they are the ones who are exposed to these harmful rays daily and encounter multiple exposures in just 24 hours. Although there is a slight and small chance of developing cancer due to being exposed to radiation staff must ensure they take precautions even if it is a slight chance. Staff members must ensure that they take precautions to ensure that they are safe and reduce the amount of exposure they intake, this can be prevented by ensuring they wear a radiation dosimeter, such as a badge, when exposed to radiation to reduce exposure to a minimum, staff must also ensure they examine the system carefully before using in case of faulty wiring which can expose them to electric shots. Visitors and patients must ensure that they take precautions also by not standing by the ward in which x-rays take place (possible risk of radiation) and also read how x-rays are taken beforehand so they understanding what happens, precautions that can be taken and risks that may occur.http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_protect/@protrav/@safework/documents/publication/wcms_192432.pdfEarly Year Setting (children aged 2-5)There are various hazards in many areas, especially nurseries for small children. All nursery staff must ensure they put the child’s safety first as many children explore by touching and tasting and it is important to keep hazardous and harmful materials out of reach.Firstly, nurseries are extremely prone to choking hazards, nurseries are full of small items such as small toys, arts and crafts supplies (buttons, beads etc) and even food. By following simple steps to prevent this, nurseries can be a much safer environment. Nursery staff must ensure they keep a careful eye on the children during meal and snack time, they must also ensure when preparing the food, they cut it into reasonable size portions for the children (children require smaller portions). They can also try and introduce softer foods such as mash potatoes instead of harder foods like hot dogs which can be harder to swallow. If a toy is broken, they must ensure they dispose of small parts and pieces to prevent them from being swallowed accidentally. The nursery can also purchase toys that are labelled appropriate for the ages of the children attending and must also undergo a course how to give first aid to a choking child. These small steps can ensure that all the children remain safe as they are the ones who will most likely be affected, rather than the adults working there who have the awareness of small parts and are easily able to take care of themselves. These small pieces can also injure a child if they are left out on the ground and have sharp edges, so they must be put away to prevent any further injury and choking hazards.Another hazard in which children are prone to is falls. Children will often run around while playing, if they get too over excited and are not aware of where they are going, they may trip, fall and injure themselves severely. Nursery members should ensure that on the sharp edges of drawers, bookshelves, tables etc, they place corner covers preferably made from silicone so if a child were to bump their head or fall into these edges, they do not hurt themselves severely as these tips will soften the impact.http://informaticianul.info/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/table-corner-protectors-glass-tables-corner-cover-aluminum-windows-corner-cover-the-silica-gel-corner-crash-pad-table-corner-protectors-lowes-table-corner-protectors-home-depot.jpganother way in which they can prevent falls is by ensuring any stair cases have child-safety gates which will shield them from falling down the stairs and hurting themselves severely, nursery staff members should ensure that these gates are locked and not damaged in any way to prevent harm to any child. Windows should also be closed to prevent any child from falling out in a worst-case scenario. Mainly children in the nursery would be affected by this as they are more prone to hazards and risks as they are not reliable to know about these dangerous hazards. However, the adults in the nursery would know how to prevent these hazards and hurting themselves and the children. As mentioned before, children love to explore by touch and taste and will touch anything they encounter as they do not understand the risks of many things, this can lead to poisonings. As children at such a young age cannot read labels, they will not understand what is harmful to them and quite often mimic what they see others do (for example nursery staff and their parents). Nursery staff must ensure that any form of cleaning supplies/materials are out of reach and put away after use, so that the children do not attempt to touch or taste whatever has been used as this can cause serious damage and would result in hospitalisation and risk of poisoning. Nursery staff must ensure cleaning supplies/materials are in a locked cupboard that remains locked before and after the use of these things. Include poison control numbers and first aid information cards for quick reference.Nursery staff must also ensure that any personal use of medication is put away also, these could be pills be mistaken as ‘sweets’ by the child in which they may consume and accidentally poison themselves resulting in hospitalisation and poisoning. To prevent this medication should be stored in a locked cupboard out of reach. Children are exposed to these hazards at all time as they have no self-awareness and rely on nursery staff to keep themselves safe. Nursery staff must also ensure that they are aware of what cleaning/supplies they use and medication to prevent mix ups.http://www.bcchildrens.ca/health-info/healthy-living/child-safety/hazardsDay Centre for elderly service users with dementiaService providers must always ensure that the service users are put at the heart of the service and always safe from potential hazards that may occur. It is important service providers are aware of the risks and take precautions to prevent hazards from occurring.Day care centres must ensure that they take precautions when it comes to the service users to ensure they are not exposed to any dangers and harm. One example of this could be by installing a security system. The security system will ensure safety to all day centre visitors and the staff inside from potential intruders who may try to enter the building to cause harm and attack anybody inside. By installing a security system, it makes it safer for everyone, it can ensure that visitors present photo identification and also have adequate security in place to ensure that elderly visitors do not wander out by themselves especially those with dementia who are extremely vulnerable to the dangers outside of the day centre, such as traffic, predators etc. the security system will always ensure maximum security and safeguarding. Without it, many services users would be prone to harm, as well as the service providers. It should be enforced that day care centres have a security system to prevent dangerous people from coming in and out as sometimes the centre may be empty and vulnerable. As mentioned before everybody inside the centre would be vulnerable and at risk without the security system.Those with dementia are extremely vulnerable and prone to accidents and hazards, especially tripping and falling. Staff inside the day centre must ensure that they always stay with their patient, to ensure they do not wander off by themselves as this increases their chance of hurting themselves. An example of this would be them wandering off to a stairwell and then falling down the stairs, hurting themselves severely as the elderly are extremely delicate and fragile, they also bruise quite easily because of their fragility. Staff members should ensure that any exits are guarded to prevent any patients with dementia from leaving and escaping by themselves. Steps in unexpected places should be avoided as far as possible and should, in any case, be provided with handrails to guide and support the clients. In this case mainly the patient is affected by this as they may not be aware of where they are going and are vulnerable to the risk of being hurt and falling/tripping. However, service providers would most likely be aware of these exits and are less likely to trip and fall.https://www.alz.co.uk/adi/pdf/daycarecentre.pdfFinally, as mentioned before those with dementia are more prone to hazards and risks as they are more vulnerable, another hazard which they are prone to is substances. Day centre facilities must ensure that the centre meets with hygiene standards and remains clean for the patients. Any cleaning material/supplies must be stored correctly and put away when elderly patients come to visit. As those with dementia are extremely forgetful they may encounter these materials if left out and not read the label correctly, this may lead to them attempting to touch the toxic substance and in worst case scenarios even attempting to taste the substance. This can lead to serious damage/poisoning on the individual also leading to hospitalisation and urgent healthcare. To prevent this from happening any sorts of cleaning supply/materials must be put away in a locked cupboard that is out of reach from everybody (with the exception of staff members) as this will ensure maximum safety and reduce the risk of any service users encountering it (harmful substances). In this case the service users are affected and at high risks of potentially harming themselves. However the service providers and staff are less likely to be harmed by these substances as they understand what they are and what they may contain.Overall, it is evident that hazards are everywhere and surround us in our everyday life, even the smallest things have a high risk of being a potential hazard whether it is to us (adults) or children who are much smaller. We must be aware of these hazards and the potential risks of the hazard so that when we encounter a situation where someone is at risk we are able to provide assistance and emergency help. Additionally, we must find ways to prevent any type of hazard as best as we can to ensure a safe, clean environment.Bibliography1. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_protect/@protrav/@safework/documents/publication/wcms_192432.pdf2. http://informaticianul.info/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/table-corner-protectors-glass-tables-corner-cover-aluminum-windows-corner-cover-the-silica-gel-corner-crash-pad-table-corner-protectors-lowes-table-corner-protectors-home-depot.jpg3. http://www.bcchildrens.ca/health-info/healthy-living/child-safety/hazards4. https://www.alz.co.uk/adi/pdf/daycarecentre.pdf