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This essay will address and examine the contemporary political health and social care challenges as it involves the management of acute illness. Furthermore, the pathophysiology, common acute physical and mental health conditions will be explored. This will entail a detailed understanding of the roles and responsibilities of a nurse in promoting self-care for patients and families living with acute conditions. As a member of the multidisciplinary team, the ability to promote health and well being for an acutely ill patient would be highlighted. Lastly, this essay would underline the effects of various guidelines and policies that have been put in place to help facilitate the management of patients with community acquired pneumonia by healthcare practitioners.Patient confidentiality is maintained as any identifying features will be omitted keeping with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008) the patient mentioned here will be addressed as. Mr.PA is a 75 year old with prior medical condition of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) was presented to A and E with incessant coughing coupled with shortness of breath. His partner mentioned that in the past few days he has been drowsy and also witnessed slight balance impairment. Mr PA also acknowledged he had contact with his grandson who had symptoms of flu and had been up to date with necessary vaccines. He is fairly active as he does a few hours of work at neighbourhood recreation centre and sometimes enjoys alcoholic beverage with his friends. On arrival to A and E observation were: temperature 38.4C, respiratory rate 33breaths/min, blood sugar level is 6.7mmol, capillary refill time 4secs, pain score/level 7/10, saturation level 92%, blood pressure 105/64mm/Hg (File, Bartlett and Thorner (2017). The chest x-ray displayed a lower right lobe consolidation. There was slight wheezing and the base of the right lung also showed fine crackles when the auscultation of the chest was performed. Analyses from the laboratory demonstrated blood glucose level of 240mg/dL, white blood cell count was normal, 15mg/dL of C-reactive protein (CRP) (as