Population aging is an obvious consequence of the process of demographic transition

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Population aging is an obvious consequence of the process of demographic transition and it creates an imbalance in the age structure over a period of time. The developed regions of the world have already experienced its consequence, while the developing world is facing a similar scenario. The constant increase in the number or percentage of the aged has caused short and long term effects on society (Sati, 1988). Various factors can be made responsible for the increasing life span and a subsequent high percentage of the elderly population in many parts of the world (Rao, 2007). The factors can be identified as increasing the birth rate, the control of pre-natal and infant mortality, improvement in nutrition, basic health facilities and control of communicable diseases, etc. (Sati, 1988, Rao, 2007) All women in rural and frontier areas are affected by access issues, specifically the lack of primary and specialty care. Rural areas also tend to have higher rates of chronic disease, including heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Rural senior women are more likely to be disabled, widowed, older and poorer than urban or suburban senior women. They also lack access to many of the human services available to their urban and suburban counterparts. This can impair the care, well-being, independence, and quality of life of older rural women. For example, senior women experience more health issues that affect their ability to drive than men. Rural areas often have limited public transportation, and residents must travel greater distances to access health care, social opportunities, healthy food options, and other necessities. These issues force many rural seniors to move to locations with more human services or to enter a nursing home earlier. Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, some types of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease occur most frequently in adult and aging women. Rural areas lack many social and health services to care for older women such as primary care physicians trained in gerontology and geriatrics, geriatricians and other specialists, social workers, nurse managers, and caseworkers. The result is that rural senior women receive fewer health services, such as screening for age-related cancers, than their urban counterparts. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the problems of the elderly women of Rural Assam. As we know, in a society like the one in India, women have been neglected all along. Discrimination and devaluation that women are exposed throughout their lives have a major impact on their health and well-being as they go through the process of aging. Older adults who live in rural areas have the same concerns related to healthcare access as other rural residents. They may also face challenges related to:• Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities• Housing quality and affordability, including how to pay for needed repairs and modifications• Availability of home and community-based services and long-term care in their communities(iii) Objectives of the study:-1. To study the changing role and status of elderly women in the family.2. To study the changing relationship and interaction of the elderly women with the family members living in the same household and children living separately, with friends, neighbours, relatives.3. To study the economic problems of elderly women.4. To study the problems related to the maintenance of physical and mental health of the aged.5. To explore the correlates of good adjustment in old age. (iv) Research question:-1. Does a successful life of elderly women depend on the continuity of the attitudes and activities of middle age?2. Does the Utilization of leisure time differ according to age, educational level, and health status and income group?3. Do the elderly women who engaged in some occupation have few problems than who have no engagement never been in any occupation?4. Whether mutual withdrawal of the elderly women and society from each other necessary for good adjustment in old age?5. Whether good adjustment in old age depends on the continuity of one’s preferred lifestyle as long as possible?(v) Review of literature:Review of literature National -Audiarayana (1999) based on a survey of the elderly widowed (274) and currently married (242) women reveals that the elderly widowed are more likely to live with their children. Generally both the widowed and married women are more inclined to live with their children when they belong to economically better households. Living in urban areas tends to increase significantly the likelihood of co-residence with children among the widowed elderly.Bagga & Sakurkar (2000) studied about Socio-Demographic Determinants of Mental Health in old age. Data were collected on a sample of 100 aged (60+ years) Maharashtrian Brahmin women of Pune city. Information regarding their general physical health and social-demographic information about the living arrangement, marital status, and their educational attainment were collected using a structured questionnaire. Among the socio-demographic parameters under study, the most important feature that pushed the neuroticism score to the peak was living arrangements. Women living along with distant relatives or non-relatives showed the highest score as compared to women living with their spouses or families. Infect, women living with a spouse alone, showed a slightly higher score than the women living with their families constituting of their spouse and children,Batra (2004) had made a comparative study of the engaged and disengaged women after retirement to show the social components of active aging. The study reflected the problems, positive and negative consequences of engagement and disengagement on the wealth, economic and social status of the retired women. Goel (2006) had carried out a study on the nutritional status of the elderly in a Rural Area