Primary Prevention

Primary Prevention/Health Promotion.Primary prevention focuses on engaging people in healthy behaviors before they are diagnosed with a disease. Health promotion includes the same thing but does not stop at the diagnosis of disease it involves motivating people to engage in a healthy lifestyle and to become a good self -manager.Planning Before Teaching.Name and Credentials of Teacher: Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 25-30 minutes. Location of Teaching: Community Health Centre.Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Pamphlets, Posters, Snacks, chalks, and pens. Estimated Cost: $25. Community and Target Aggregate: Adult Youth (18-35).Topic: Prevention and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.Epidemiological Rationale. (statistics related to topic)Data collected from Centre of Disease Prevention shows that 29.1 million people (9.3%) in the United States have diabetes. 21 million people are diagnosed while 8.1 million are undiagnosed. At the age of 20-44 years, 4.3 million are diagnosed with diabetes and 4.1 million people are undiagnosed. Worldwide, there is a projected increase in the prevalence of diabetes from 382 million people (8.3%) in 2013 to 592 million people (10.1%) in 2035. Individuals who are physically active can lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 30-50%. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for diabetes for all adults that are overweight and above the age of 45 years. Risk factors include ethnicity, (African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic, Asia American, and Pacific Islander), family history, obesity, and also having a baby that weighs more than 9 pounds.Nursing Diagnostics.Nursing diagnosis refer to health seeking and self care activities. Imbalanced nutrition: intake of more than the body requires in relation to eating food that exceeds what the body needs as evidenced by weight gain.Readiness for Learning.Readiness for learning is very important. Nurses have to connect with their patients and identify factors that would indicate their readiness to learn emotionally and practically in order to understand their problem. The young adults will express:Their feelings about ways to prevent type 2 diabetes and obesity.Ask appropriate questions about decreasing risk factors.They will engage in conservation, body language, and verbalize understanding.Learning Theory to Be Utilized: Explain how the theory will be applied.I will use the teach back theory it is mostly used to narrow the communication gap between the teacher and the targeted group. Through this teach back method, I will use teaching materials in a simplified medical language in the pamphlets and posters. The group will be asked to repeat what I have taught in their own terms. I will then evaluate the groups learning and re-educate them to make sure they fully understand the materials. This direct approach will be implemented through personal and eye contact, body language and if the group understands they are able to teach-back the information accurately enhancing the effectiveness of this theory.Goal: Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective(s) utilized as the goal for the teaching.The two main goals under the Healthy people 2020 include the prevention, reduction and elimination of health care associated infections. Secondly, there is the promotion of respiratory health through better treatment and early detection. Therefore, Type 2 diabetes adheres to HP2020 objectives D-1 to D-16 on diabetes. Specifically, the non-subjective D-1 cuts down the one year figure of new instances of people diagnosed with diabetes. The target is a 10% betterment from the baseline of 8.0 new cases of diabetes per 1,000 people aged 18 to 84 years that occurred in the past one year as reported in 2006 to 2008.Education on the preventive measures and steps needed to be taken by the population at risk tackles this issue of decreasing this one year figure of instances.How HP2020 Objectives Relates to Alma Ata’s Health for all Global Initiative.This HP2020 Objective relates to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives by endorsing the end of an increasing healthy life anticipation. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that can reduce life anticipation in the affected population if it is undiagnosed early or prevented in the first place. Reduction the one year figure of diagnosing increases the targeted population’s health life anticipation.Behavioral Objectives and Domains, Content, and Strategies/Methods:Behavioral Objective and Domain  Content Strategies/Methods By the end of the presentation the group will have knowledge about the management and control of type 2 diabetes.   Description of the disease and how people lifestyles lead to increase of the disease.Give illustrations how diabetes impacts diet and day to day lifestyle and the way the group would work to maintain proper weight and regular exercise. The group will hold background understanding of type 2 diabetes and it’s main deductions as evidenced by the symptoms of the disease.   Give general overview of type 2 diabetes (insulin opposition).   Have the group talk about what they already know about type 2 diabetes before going over the already prepared slides about the general overview of the disease.The group will understand at the end of the presentation about what puts a person at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. They will learn why some people (ethnicity) are at higher risk due to familiar factors. The group will get information about preventative step of reducing the hazards of type 2 diabetes. They will be educated on proper lifestyles and dietary picks needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle.  Overview of why some population are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. General preventative steps. A good balanced diet to be followed by those with diabetes.Type 2 diabetes risk factors will be presented in the slides. I will engage the group to see what they already know about the project before the presentation. General preventative steps will be presented in a way that it was relevant to the lifestyle of the group members.Creativity.The group will be engaged through questions and answers at the start of the presentation. They will be engaged about their day to day lives such as regular physical exercising, their diets etcetera. This elevates the energy and involvement degree of the group. The introduction of preventative diabetic regimens for the disease would be presented in a manner that would refer to everyday nutritional practices of the group. This will links the presenter to the group driving in the teaching.Planned Evaluation Objectives.The group members can be asked by the presenter what type 2 diabetes is and how it applies to their everyday lives.The presenter can put together a speedy quiz at the end of the presentation to measure what the audience understood about type 2 diabetes.The presenter can measure the groups purpose of altering their life style to integrate the steps presented.Feedback after the presentation can estimate how much the community is listening to the dietary recommendation and preventative steps given in the presentation.Planned Evaluation Goal.Effectiveness of this instruction program can be measured through an end of presentation verbal quiz in order to see how the information presented during the presentation triggers changes in the life styles of the target group members present.Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher. (Process Evaluation)A trusted member of the audience who has a checklist or a rubric to get as much as possible during the presentation and carry out planned ratting of the lesson and the instructor. This member would give feedback at the end of the presentation direct to the presenter.Barriers.Leaving of audience members: People tend to leave to go back to their jobs and other duties before the end of the presentation or even soon after. A proclamation will be made to the members of the community before the start of the presentation so that people who may need to make their way out may do so.Technological issues. Engineering malfunctions may occur, this may be handled by talking without ocular aid and instead convey the message by word of mouth.Language. Members of different ethnicity will be present thus may be difficult to understand the subject being presented. Body language and clear and simple communication may help in the flow of information.Therapeutic Communication.The beginning of this presentation would start with questions and answers in order to hook the people in the audience and discuss how this relates to them.The presentation will end with holding a verbal quiz and ending things up with a message that relates to everyone in the audience.Communication gestures will also be used; they include hand gestures to get across certain thoughts, clarification of charts and images using arrows, using linguistic communication and straight position to address each part of the audience.REFERENCES.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. HYPERLINK "http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheet05.htm" t "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705310/_blank" http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheet05.htm. (accessed on January 23, 2020)Amundson JW, Butcher MK, Gohdes D, et al. (2009) Translating the diabetes prevention program into practice in the general community: findings from the Montana cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Educ. Klein S, Sheard NF, Pi-Sunyer X, et al. (2004) Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: rationale and strategies. A statement of the American Diabetes Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. McKenzie, J., Neiger, B., & Thackeray, R. (2013). Planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs. Boston: Pearson.Pender, N., Murdaugh, C., & Parsons, M. (2011). Health promotion in nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson

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