Reflective theorists

2.1. Summarise theoretical perspectives on relation to professional developmentWorking with children is difficult and it is important for everyone to be able to reflect on their practice afterwards in order to improve their responses or the overall way in which they work. Many different theoretical perspectives on relation to reflecting have been developed, however there are 3 theories, that have been particularly influential in helping people to understand the reflective process. 351599511692500KOLB’S EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING THEORY 1984 INCLUDEPICTURE “https://www.nicole-brown.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Kolb.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET Kolb’s experimental learning theory presents a cyclical model of learning, consisting of four stages.  This cycle helps people to understand what is involved in the reflective process and sets out four easy stages to follow in the process.  By progressing through each of the four stages of the learning cycle in a logical order we are learning effectively.  The four stages of the learning cycles are: INCLUDEPICTURE “https://www.cambridge-community.org.uk/professional-development/gswrp/media/refp_m3_aw_001_dtnktyp.png” * MERGEFORMATINET 1. Concrete Experience This is the first stage of the learning process. This is where you consciously and physically experience a situation, which makes you realise that you need to reflect systematically in order to learn something new or improve on your existing skill and practice.2. Reflective ObservationThis is the stage after having a concrete experience it is time to reflect on that experience.  This would include thinking about: what worked? what failed? why did the situation arise? why did others and I behave the way we did? This stage also relates to receiving feedback from others. In an Early Years setting a peer observation can be used.3. Abstract ConceptualisationAt this stage conclusions are made from the reflective process and decisions are made about how improvements can be made in the future and what has been learnt from the experience. 4. Active experimentThis is the stage where you take your own reflections and thoughts about improvements as well as the theories back into your practice and try out the new strategies. This then leads back to the beginning of the cycle to continue learning, development and reflection.  GIBB’S CYCLE OF REFLECTION 1988Gibb’s produced a 6-step cycle based on continuous learning through reflection.  This cycle helps to make sense of an experience or situation.  The cycle can work well when used to reflect on a single experience or repeated experiences. INCLUDEPICTURE “http://www.nicole-brown.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/gibbs.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET INCLUDEPICTURE “https://www.ed.ac.uk/files/styles/landscape_breakpoints_theme_uoe_mobile_1x/public/thumbnails/image/gibbs_cycle_600x600.png?itok=m2W_tX_6” * MERGEFORMATINET 018126800 The 6 steps are:1. DescriptionWhat has happened?2. FeelingsThis step encourages you to think about how you felt during the situation and whether these feelings had an impact.3. EvaluationAt this stage you evaluate what has happened and think about what went well and what didn’t.4. AnalysisAt this stage you analyse the situation thinking about why things went well or didn’t go well.  5. ConclusionAt this stage everything is drawn to a conclusion thinking about what has been learnt and how things could be done differently next time.6. Action plan An action plan is now put into place. In terms of professional development this could be by adding an area of learning or development to a Professional Development Plan. Kolb vs GibbBoth of these theoretical cycles are beneficial in terms of professional development. Both cycles are based on learning and reflecting from experiences. However, Gibb’s cycle has a step that encourages you to think about your feelings and understand if these have had an impact on what has happened. This is a key element in taking ownership in recognising your own role and in self-reflection.Kolb’s theory is beneficial to not only to the personal practice improvement, but also could be applied to children’s progress. When we consider planning, assessing the planning, reflecting on what went well and what could be improved, we can think about enhance children’s development, as a next action step. Also, both theories lend well to the EYFS where reflective practice is encouraged.Another different approach to reflection is the work by Schön. Schön (1991) distinguishes between reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action.Reflection-in-action is reflection during the ‘doing’ stage. This is carried out during the lesson or activity, rather than reflecting on how you would do things differently in the future. This is an extremely efficient method of reflection as it allows you to react and change an event at the time it happens. For example, in the nursery setting, you may be doing a science activity when you can see that children are not understanding what you are doing. Your reflection-in-action allows you to understand why this has happened and how to respond to overcome this situation.Reflection-in-action allows you to deal with surprising incidents that may happen in a learning environment. It allows you to be responsible and resourceful, drawing on your own knowledge and allowing you to apply it to new experiences. It also allows for personalised learning as, you decide what works best at that time for that unique experience and children.On the other hand, Reflection-on-action, involves reflecting on how practice can be developed after the activity. Reflection-on-action means you reflect after the event on how your knowledge of previous experience may lead you to this experienceReflection-on-action should encourage ideas on what you need to change for the future. You carry out reflection-on-action outside the classroom, where you consider the situation again. This requires deeper thinking.By following any of the above-mentioned models of reflection, you will have a questioning approach to teaching and working with children. You will consider why things are as they are, and how they could be. You will consider the strengths and areas of development in your own practice, questioning why learning experiences might be this way and considering how to develop them. As a result, what you do at your workplace will be carefully planned, and focused, with logical reasons. All of these models stress the importance of repeating the cycle to make sure knowledge is secure and progression is continued.References:https://www.cambridge-community.org.uk/professional-development/gswrp/index.html (30/09/2019)http://www.nicole-brown.co.uk/reflective-model-according-to-kolb/ (30/09/2019)http://www.nicole-brown.co.uk/reflective-model-according-to-gibbs/ (30/09/2019)Penny Tassoni (2014) Early Years Educator, CACHE LEVEL 3 Hodder Education

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