Rehal_Suman_Assignment#5- Literature Review

Running Head: EFFECTIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT 1Effective Pain Management and its effects on patient’s satisfaction and outcomes Suman RehalLiterature Review Assignment#5Scholarly Writing in Nursing CRN-53516-201802Online Session: MondaySunday, April 21 2019Effective pain management is a universal challenge. Lack of amalgamation of existing knowledge and practice of effective pain management by health care specialists or practitioners in day-to-day care badly affects patients which results in bodily(physical), mental(psychological), and emotional indices. Improvement in patient care has been drastically seen overtime, due to the implementation of research discoveries on pain management which progressed slowly overtime. Pain management has been considered as one of the main key elements in patient care as recognized by WHO (World Health Organization) and other national health agencies. This paper explores results or outcomes due to effective pain management in patients with severe pain regardless of their age, sex and type of the pain they are suffering from, highlight the proportions of pain management, assess the use of suggested evidence-based practices in pain management and assessment, and report the increase in patient satisfaction related to effective pain management.Pain has been defined as “an unpleasant physical, sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, as well as [an] unpleasant and therefore also an emotional experience’’, (Glowacki,2015). There are different identified dimensions that play a major role in contribution of pain management. The dimensions include physiological, sensory, affective or cognitive, and sociocultural components unique for each patient that should be considered (Glowacki,2015). A similar kind of proposition was given by Joav Merrick in his book, Pain Management Yearbook 2016, where he suggested that methods to provide pain control in any pediatric patient can be based on seeking to understand the child or adolescent’s pain experience based on such issues as how this pediatric patient indicates the presence of pain and how pain has been handled in the past. For infants and children, pain requires special attention, particularly because they are not always able to describe the type, degree, or location of pain they are experiencing (National Institute of Health, 2010). Reports driven by the study of Eva, Helle, Helena & Adad (2018) proposed patients’ understandings of pain persuaded their attitudes and strategies for pain management. Additionally, it was also found after the research on pain management in the 1970s and 1980s peaked as a revolution in hypothetical knowledge of the physiological, psychological, and social characteristics of enhanced quality of life associated with pain relief, but submission of the findings to the general practice of medicine have been deferred. Aggressive pain control is still lacking for patients with acute pain. Although some concepts have been united into practice to increase effective pain management, application of the concepts in the treatment of patients with pain has been slow. Hence there is a general agreement of all the authors in proposing that effective pain management is ruled by the dimensions mentioned above.Adequate pain management enhances earlier flexibility and reduces the complications of ileus, urinary retention, and myocardial infarction. Sleep deprivation, which can increase postoperative fatigue, resulting in decreased mobility, is also reduced, as are pulmonary complications, and an aggravated catabolic hormonal response to injury (Glowacki,2015). When bodily difficulties are well controlled, patients and their families are better able to respond to stress and to cope with the patient’s situation. Additional aids of satisfactory pain management comprise up of diminished length of stay, lesser readmission rates, earlier general recovery, improved quality of life, increased output, and decreased costs for patients and the health care system.The medical practice guidelines of the American Pain Society endorse that patients and their families should receive pain education during the presurgical appointment that comprises up of a description of the clinical procedure; the expected postoperative routine; the intrusions and choices for pain relief, including existing pain medication; and the need for progressive increased flexibility. Proper education and adequate treatment of postoperative pain can also result in positive emotional outcomes for patients, such as a decrease in anxiety and depression, an increase in coping skills, a greater sense of individual control, and an increase in a sense of well-being (Merrick,2016).Pain assessment is solitary step in effective pain management. The measurement and handling of pain must be suitable for each patient. For example, Discoveries of differences in pain perceptions and responses to treatment by gender has have led to new directions for research on the experience and relief of pain, medications called kappa-opioids provide good relief from acute pain in women, yet increase pain in men (National Institute of Health,1999). Improved pain controls can help nurses prevent analgesia gaps, or lapses in management of pain medication, that can increase pain or even lead to unrestrained pain.In 2001, the Joint Commission introduced necessities that focused on enhancements in quality pain management, stressing that pain should be expertly evaluated and treated in all patients. The commission established that acute pain and chronic pain were major causes of patient’s frustration. Merrick suggest that, “Scores for general patient satisfaction on the Hospital Consumers Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) investigation would most likely rise the most with enhancements in nursing care such as managing nurse workloads and providing nurses more time for personalized patient care that would augment pain management”.Patients are more likely to experience dissatisfaction if they perceive a lack of validation in their pain experience or negative attitudes from their clinicians (Glowacki,2015).In nutshell, differences in treating pain will last. A main test in providing patients the most real treatments for pain lies in the trouble of interpreting research to practice. Research specifies a determined gap between an understanding of the pathology of pain and suggested treatment of pain (Glowacki,2015).Pain relief has been recognized as a rudimentary human right by the World Health Organization as they state that “The irrational failure to treat pain is viewed as an unethical breach of human rights.” Thus, it is noticed that more research is needed in order to combat the noticeable effects of pain on patient health which include the frustration that develops in the mind of patient prior being hospitalized. Development of newer pain medication agents with fewer adverse side effects and aggressive implementation of balanced analgesia should be in place. The interdisciplinary team effort in pain management is a multifaceted yet essential part of providing excellence in patient care. The team approach provides important insight for patients and is highly correlated with improved patient recovery, outcomes, knowledge, and satisfaction. (Merrick,2016).References:Merrick, J. (2016). Pain Management yearbook 2008/Joav Merrick, editor. Retrieved from GBC Library Catalogue database.Eva, A., Helle, W., Helena, B., & Adad, B. (2018). Patients’ Experiences of Pain Have an Impact on Their Pain Management Attitudes and Strategies. Pain Management Nursing. Oct 2018, Vol. 19 Issue 5, 464,277-298. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmn.2018.02.067.Diane, G. (2015). Effective Pain management and improvements in patient’s outcomes and satisfaction. Critical Care Nurse. June 2015, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p33, 9 p.National Institute of Nursing Research. (1999). Pain Management. Retrieved March30, 2019,from https://www.ninr.nih.gov/newsandinformation/publications.

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