ROBERT MUGABE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND CULTUREDEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONSNAME ZVARIMWA TANAKA THEODIESREG NUMBER M187015Cell: 0774516085 EMAIL: [email protected] BED PSYCHOLOGY MODULE CODE MODULE TITTLE GENDERASSIGNMENT NO 1 ASSIGNMENT TITLE JUSTIFY THE RATIONALE OF CONSIDERING PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES IN GENDER STUDIESLECTURER LEVEL (1. 1) MARK————————–LECTURES COMMENT————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————This write up will justify the rationale of considering psychological issues in gender. Thus looking at issues like sex, gender, gender stereotyping and personality as psychological aspects that can help to do away with gender segregation, gender bias in textbooks and practices, gender sensitivity as well as the promotion of sport to all sexes in gender studies. Prior to the discussion the terms to be defined are psychologyand gender studies. Psychology is defined byMcLeod (2008) as the scientific study of behavior inhumans and animals. According to Watson (2004) psychology is best defined as the scientific study of behavior in humans and mental processes. Therefore psychology to the scientific body of knowledge to study human behaviour of what he does and thinks.According to Lakshmi (2000) gender refers to those traits and characteristics that a person is expected to possess by virtue of being male or female, as well as the different roles that the person is expected to perform. Kang, Lessard, Heston and Nordmaken (2017) define gender studies as the academic study of the phenomena of issues relating to the masculinity and femininity of humans. With regard to this paper gender studies refers to the looks at the manner in which the norms and patterns of behaviour associated with masculinity and femininity come into being.To begin with the psychological issue of sex Weiler (2009) avows that sex as the concept that emerges from anatomical and physiological characteristics that differentiates males and females biologically. In the same line of view, Evertsson (2006) states that sexis biological and one cannot change.One’s sex is a biological make up which is determined way back during gestation period. Sex denotes to visible differences in genitalia and related differences in procreative function. As such sex is natural. Therefore in gender studies one should bear in mind that children are born already ascribed to a certain sex that is male or female due to his or her biological make up. This implies that in schools the differences in the biological make up has seen the construction of rest rooms to be constructed differently to cater for such differences. For example boys’ablutions are built with urinary while girls’ do have chambers or squat holes to cater for the differences in genitalia make up.Gender as defined by Liu (2006) is theterm widely used to refer to those ways in which a culture reformulates what begins asa fact of nature. Gender can be seen as a social construct manifested by masculine and feminine roles prevalent in a culture or a society. Meaning to say one can be seen as masculine or feminine depending on how he or she was socialized. Gender is a socio-cultural construct and it refers to masculine and feminine qualities, behaviour patterns, related roles andresponsibility, (Ranjith,2013). This means that ascribing one to a certain gender may differ from one culture to another. According to Weiler, (2009) the biological sexes are redefined, represented, valued, and channeled into different roles in various culturally dependent ways. This leadsto gender rolesacquired by an individual in the process of becoming a man or woman. Thus gender can be seen as an artifact of social, cultural andpsychological factors which are attained during the process of socialization of an individual.For example, women may be seen as naturally caring and nurturing, while men may be seen as naturally rational and logical; this may lead to the belief that women are naturally suited to jobs like nursing, while men will make good scientists and engineers. The traits associated with masculinity and femininity varies across different cultures and societies, as well asdifferent periods in history.In this case bearing in mind the psychological aspects of sex and gender, gender studieswill allow one to see the dimensions of human roles and personalities as based not on nature but on social factors. It then allows us to address issues like subordination and discrimination as issues where change is possible. Therefore the meaning of sex and gender, femininity and masculinity fluctuates within societies and cultures across the globe could also be addressed.Gender roles lead to gender stereotyping. Gender stereotypes begin the second a baby’s gender is found out, (Sadker, Sadkerand Zittleman, 2009). As soon as e the expectant motherfinds out it is a girl, sheimmediately begin decorating a pink nursery filled with soft décor and butterflies and flowers.According to Sadker, Sadkerand Zittleman, (2009)even as young as five or six, the baby girlis well aware that she is supposed to stay home with the baby while the husband goes to work, and she has dinner ready when he gets home. Here is another stereotype; women stay at home while men go to work. .There is need for gender sensitivity amongst all human fraternity to avoid gender stereotyping. Failure for which will call for gender sensitization training for teachers. According to Evertsson (2006) children learn prejudicial attitudes at an early age from observing the stereotypical roles that people in our families assume. As they progress through school, these attitudes are reinforced by classmates and peers. Gender stereotyping is also supported by the unspoken biases of teachers. For example light duties like sweeping given to girls while digging flower beds given to boys. The educational programmes are also to blame through the language used in some textbooks which is gender biased and belittle the women at the expense of their male counterparts. For example terms like headmaster, postman, chairman were commonly used and in some texts Women are nurses, not doctors, not as strong as men, responsible for raising children, supposed to look pretty and be looked at while All men enjoy working on cars, enjoy outdoor activities such as camping, fishing, and hiking, are in charge; they are always at the top, As husbands, men tell their wives what to do, are good at math among other stereotyping beliefs, (Liu, 2006). Such text will socialize children that there are certain positions in life that are meant for males. In instances where girl child might be denied sport there is need for such amendments to incorporate all children in all sporting disciplines as is the case with Zimbabwe where there soccer, basketball rugby for both sexes. As such it is of great importance for teachers to consider psychological issues in gender studies.Personality is yet another psychological trait that needs to be considered in gender studies. Men and women have different personalities at different stages of human development. Freud in McLeod(2008) posit that at the phallic stage the boy child experiences Oedipus complex where the positive Oedipus complex refers to a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and hatred for the same-sex parent. The negative Oedipus complex refers to a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the same-sex parent and hatred for the opposite-sex parent. Freud considered that the child’s identification with the same-sex parent is the successful resolution of the complex and that unsuccessful resolution of the complex might lead to neurosis, pedophilia, and homosexuality while the girl child experiences Electra complex thus is a girl’s psychosexual competition with her mother for possession of her father. In the course of the girl child’s psychosexual development. Liu (2006) instead proposed that girls and boys resolved their complexes differently as the girl via penis envy and the boy via castration anxiety. Unsuccessful resolution might lead to neurosisand homosexuality, (Freud in McLeod,2008).As such a psychological issue in gender studies the educational policymakers will have to consider mixed sex schools and classroom practitioners considering mixed sex group activities so as to avoid gender based segregation and negative later practices such as homosexuality that may arise as the child align him or herself to same sex partner which is an abomination in some countries like Zimbabwe.Furthermore, still on personality there are personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause problems in work, school or social relationships. In addition, the person’s patterns of thinking and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person’s ability to function effectively. Ranjith (2013) avers that in a Research carried out by Research gate on 75 boys and 75 girls randomly selected in India 2005 on psychological perspective on gender equality looking atgender difference in the dimension of personality, the findings were that males were dominant over females on extraversion a personality a dimension that reflects the talkative, energetic, active, friendly, bold, spontaneous and assertive nature of an individual, agreeableness shows the sympathetic, kind, appreciative, affectionate, good natured, trusting and lenient characteristics and openness to experience is a measure of an individual’s wide interest, imaginative, independent, original and artistic characteristics females were dominanton conscientiousness be made. According to Bhasin, (2003) males and females are counter parts and both of them have to share the responsibilities together to build a healthy family and society and hence both genders are to be treated with equal dignity and respect. Thus only an awareness of this kind can bring about gender equality making it a reality rather than a myth.In conclusion this write up justifies the rationale of considering psychological issues in gender studies. Looking at sex, gender, gender stereotyping and personality as psychological aspects that can help to do away with gender segregation, gender bias in textbooks and practices, gender sensitivity as well as the promotion of sport to all sexes in gender studies. ReferencesBhasin, K. (2003) Understanding Gender.New Delhi: Women UnlimitedEvertsson, M. (2006). The Reproduction of Gender: Housework and Attitudes Towards Gender Equality in the Home Among Swedish Boys and Girls. Br J Sociol, 57(3), 415-436.Kang, M., Lessard, D., Heston, L and Nordmaken, S (2017). Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst LibrariesLakshmi (2000) Body blows: women, violence, and survival: three plays, Juwaatra: Seagull Books Liu, F. (2006). “School Culture and Gender.”The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education (pp. 425–38).McLeod, S. A. (20O8).Simply Psychology.Erik Erikson. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.htmRanjith, N. (2013) Psychological Perspective on Gender: ZENITH International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research ISSN 2231-5780 Vol.3Sadker, D., Sadker, M., and Zittleman, K.R. (2009). Still Failing at Fairness: How Gender Bias Cheats Girls and Boys in School and What We Can doaboutit. New York, NY: Scribner.WATSON J, (2004). Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 60(12), 1207–1221 © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20061Weiler, K. (2009). “Feminist Analysis of Gender and Schooling.”The Critical Pedagogy Reader (pp. 338–54).